The origin of the Mizos, like those of many other tribes in the northeastern India, is shrouded in mystery.
Folklore has an interesting tale to offer. The Mizos, so goes the legend, emerged from under a large covering rock known as Chhinlung. Two people of the Ralte clan, known for their loquaciousness, started talking noisily while coming out of the region. They made a great noise which made their god, called Pathian of the Mizos, to throw up his hands in disgust and say "enough is enough". He felt too many people had already been allowed to step out and he closed the door with the rock. History often varies from legends. But the story of the Mizos getting out into open world through a rock opening is now a part of the Mizo fable.

Facts and legends

Chhinlung however, is taken by some as the Chinese city of Sinlung or Chinlingsang situated close on the Sino-Burmese border. The Mizos have songs and stories about the glory of the ancientChhinlung civilization handed down from one generation to the other. According to Mr. K. S. Latourette, there were political upheavals in China in 210 B.C. when the dynastic rule was abolished and the whole empire was brought under one administrative system. Rebellions broke out and chaos reigned throughout the Chinese State. Then the Mizos left China as part of one of those waves of migration. However this is pure speculation.
Shan State
They first settled in the Shan State after having overcome the resistance put up by the indigenous people. The Shans had already been firmly settled in their State when Mizos came there from Chhinlung around 5th century. The Shans did not welcome the new arrivals, but failed to throw the Mizos out. The Mizos had lived happily in the Shan state for about 300 years before they moved on the Kabaw Valley around the 8th century.
Kabaw Valley
Then they changed settlements several times, moving from the Shan State to Kabaw Valley to Khampat in Burma. It was in the Kabaw Valley that Mizos got the opportunity to have an unhindered interaction with the local Burmese. The two cultures met and the two tribes influenced each other in the spheres of clothing, customs, music and sports. According to some, the Mizos learnt the art of cultivation from the Burmese at Kabaw. Many of their agricultural implements bore the prefix Kawl, which was the name given by the Mizos to the Burmese.
Khampat (now in Myanmar) was known to have been the next Mizo settlement. The area claimed by the Mizos as their earliest town, was encircled by an earthen rampart and divided into several parts. The residence of the ruler stood at the central block called Nan Yar (Palace Site). The construction of the town indicates the Mizos had already acquired considerable architecture skills. They are said to have planted a banyan tree at Nan Yar before they left Khampat as a sign that the town was made by them.
Chin Hills
The Mizos, in the early 14th century, settled at Chin Hills on the Indo-Burmese border. They built villages and called them by their clan names such as SeipuiSaihmun and Bochung. The hills and difficult terrains of Chin Hills stood in the way of the building of another central township like Khampat. The villages were scattered so unsystematically that it was not always possible for the various Mizo clans to keep in touch with each other.
Mizo Hills
The earliest Mizos were known as Kukis, the second batch of immigrants were called New Kukis. The Lushais were the last of the Mizo tribes migrate to the Lushai Hills. By the time they crossed the Tiau river bordering Myanmar, the descendants of Zahmuaka, who came to be known as the ruling Sailo clan, had proven their mettle as able and assertive chiefs. The traditional system of village administration, too, had been perfected. As the head of the village, the Chief or Lal allocated lands for cultivation, settled all disputes in the villages, fed and cared for the poor and offered shelter to anyone seeking refuge. The Mizo history in the 18th and 19th centuries is marked by many instances of tribal raids and retaliatory expeditions.
British rule
Mizo Hills were formally declared as part of British India by a proclamation in 1895. North and south hills were united into Lushai Hills district in 1898 with Aizawl as its headquarters. The process of the consolidation of the British administration in tribal dominated area in Assam started in 1919 when Lushai Hills, along with some of the other hill districts, was declared a "Backward Tract" under the 1919 Government of India Act. The tribal districts of Assam including Lushai Hills were declared "Excluded Area" in 1935. It was during the British regime that a political awakening among the Mizos in Lushai Hills started taking shape the first political party, the Mizo Common People's Union was formed on 9 April 1946. The Party was later renamed the Mizo Union. As the day of Independence drew nearer, the Constituent Assembly of India set up an advisory committee to deal with matters relating to the minorities and the tribal members. A sub-committee, under the chairmanship of Gopinath Bordoloi was formed to advise the Constituent Assembly on the tribal affairs in the North East. The Mizo Union submitted a resolution of this Sub-committee demanding inclusion of all Mizo inhabited areas adjacent to Lushai Hills. However, a new party called the United Mizo Freedom Organization (UMFO) came up to demand that Lushai Hills join Burma after Independence.
The first missionaries who came to Mizoram was Rev. William Williams, a Welsh missionary who at that time was a missionary in Khasi Hills, North East India (now Meghalaya). He came into Mizoram in 1891 and preached the Gospel among some of the villages. On January 11, 1894, F.W. Savidge and J.H. Lorrain, commissioned by Arthington Aborigines Mission, reached Mizoram.Rev. RA Lorrain, younger brother of Rev. JH Lorrain and founder of the Evangelical Church of Maraland (est.1907) was the first pioneering missionary to the Mara people in the southernmost part of Mizoram state, completing the task of evangelizing the people of the whole state - Presbyterians in the north, Baptists in the middle and Evangelicals in the south.
Lushai Hills District
Following the Bordoloi sub-committee's suggestion, a certain amount of autonomy was accepted by the government and enshrined in the Six Schedule of the Indian Constitution. The Lushai HillsAutonomous District Council came into being in 1952 followed by the formation of these bodies led to the abolition of chieftainship in the Mizo society. The autonomy however met the aspirations of the Mizos only partially. Representatives of the District Council and the Mizo Union pleaded with the States Reorganization Commission (SRC) in 1954 for integration of the Mizo-dominated areas of Tripura and Manipur with their District Council in Assam. The tribal leaders in the northeast were laboriously unhappy with the SRC recommendations. They met in Aizawl in 1955 and formed a new political party, Eastern India Union (EITU) and raised their demand for a separate state comprising all the hill districts of Assam. The Mizo Union split and the breakaway faction joined the EITU. By this time, the UMFO also joined the EITU and then understanding of the Hill problems by the Chuliha Ministry, the demand for a separate Hill state by EITU was kept in abeyance.
Mautam famine
In 1959, Mizo Hills was devastated by a great famine known in Mizo history as 'Mautam Famine'.The cause of the famine was attributed to flowering of bamboos which resulted in boom in the rat population
. After eating bamboos seeds, the rats turned towards crops and infested the huts and houses and became a plague to the villages. The havoc created by the rats was terrible and very little of the grain was harvested. For sustenance, many Mizos had to collect roots and leaves from the jungles. Others searched for edible roots and leaves in the jungles. Still others moved to far away places, and a considerable number died of starvation. In this hour of darkness, many welfare organization tried their best to help starving villagers. Earlier in 1955, Mizo Cultural Society was formed with Pu Laldenga as its secretary. In March 1960, the name of the Mizo Cultural Society was changed to 'Mautam Front' During the famine of 1959–1960, this society took lead in demanding relief and managed to attract the attention of all sections of the people. In September 1960, the Society adopted the name of Mizo National Famine Front (MNFF). The MNFF gained considerable popularity as a large number of Mizo Youth assisted in transporting rice and other essential commodities to interior villages.
The Mizo National Famine Front dropped the word 'famine' and a new political organisation, the Mizo National Front (MNF) was born on 22 October 1961 under the leadership of Laldenga with the specified goal of achieving sovereign independence of Greater Mizoram. It resorted to armed insurrection with the 28 February 1966 uprising against the Government, attacking the government installations at Aizawl, Lunglei, ChawngteChhimluang and other places. In Aizawl, on 5 and 6 March 1966, the Government of India bombed the city of Aizawl with Toofani and Hunter Jet fighters, this was the first time India used its air force to quell a movement of any kind among its citizens.The next day, a more excessive bombing took place for several hours which left most houses in Dawrpui and Chhinga veng area in ashes,” recollected 62-year-old Rothangpuia in Aizawl. The Mizo National Front was outlawed in 1967 and the demand for statehood increased. The Mizo District Council delegation met prime minister Indira Gandhi in May 1971 and demanded full fledged statehood for Mizoram. The Indian government offered to convert the Mizo Hills into a Union Territory (U.T.) in July 1971. The Mizo leaders accepted on the condition that Statehood occurred sooner rather than later.
While the MNF took to violence to secure its goal of establishing a sovereign land, other political forces in the hills of Assam were striving for a separate state. The search for a political solution to the problems facing the hill regions in Assam continued. The Mizo National Front was outlawed in 1967. The demand for statehood was gained fresh momentum. A Mizo District Council delegation, which met prime minister Indira Gandhi in May 1971 demanded fullfledged statehood for the Mizos. The union government on its own offered the proposal of turning Mizo Hills into a Union Territory (U.T.) in July 1971. The Mizo leaders were ready to accept the offer on condition that the status of U.T would be upgraded to statehood sooner rather than later. The Union Territory of Mizoram came into being on 21 January 1972. Mizoram get two seats in Parliament, one each in the Lok Sabha and in the Rajya Sabha.
Birth of Mizoram state
Rajiv Gandhi's assumption of power following his mother's death signaled the beginning of a new era in Indian politics. Laldenga met the prime minister on 15 February 1985. Some contentious issues which could not be resolved during previous talks were referred to him for his advice. With Pakistan having lost control of Bangladesh and no support from Pakistan, the Mizo National Front used the opportunity that had now presented itself. New Delhi felt that the Mizo problem had been dragging on for a long time, while the Mizo National Front was convinced that bidding farewell to arms to live as respectable Indian citizens was the only way of achieving peace and development. Statehood was a prerequisite to the implementation of the accord signed between the Mizo National Front and the Union Government on 30 June 1986. The document was signed by Pu Laldenga[17] on behalf of the Mizo National Front, and the Union Home Secretary R.D. Pradhanon behalf of the government. Lalkhama, Chief Secretary of Mizoram, also signed the agreement. The formalization of the state of Mizoram took place on 20 February 1987. Chief Secretary Lalkhama read out the proclamation of statehood at a public meeting organised at Aizawl's parade ground. Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi flew in to Aizawl to inaugurate the new state. Hiteshwar Saikia was appointed as Governor of Mizoram.


The State of Tripura has a long history. The Kingdom of Tripura in its peak included the whole eastern region of Bengal from the Brahmaputra river in the north and west, the Bay of Bengal in the south and Burma to the east during the 14th and 15th centuries AD.
The last ruler of the princely state of Tripura was Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya Bahadur who reigned from 1947-1949 Agartala after whom the kingdom was merged with India on 9 September 1949 and the administration was taken over on 15 October 1949.

The origins of the kingdom is shrouded in the myths written in Rajmala, the chronicle of the Kings of Tripura, which meanders from Hindu mythologies and Tripuri folklores.

Mythological period

Ancient period
The ancient period can be said from around 7th century when the Tripuri kings ruled from Kailashahar in North Tripura and they used "Fa" as their title, "pha" in Kokborok means "Father" or "Head".
Historical period
The Kings of Tripura adopted the "Manikya" title and shifted their capital to Udaipur (formerly Rangamati) on the banks of river Gomti in South Tripura in the 14th century. These was their most glorious period and their power and fame was even acknowledged by the Mughals, who were their contemporaries in North India.
Modern period
The modern period starts after the domination of the kingdom by the Mughals and the further tribute to the British India after the British defeated the Mughals. In 1871, the British Indian government appointed an agent to assist the Maharaja in the administration. During this period the capital of the kingdom was shifted to Agartala, in West Tripura the present state capital in the early part of 19th century.
After India's independence, the princely state of Tripura was merged with the Union of India in 1949. Tripura became a Union Territory on 1 July 1963 and attained the status of a full-fledged state on 21 January 1972.



The documented history of Manipur begins with the reign of King Nongda Lairen Pakhangba (r. 33–154 AD), who unified the seven clans of Manipuri society. Introduction of the Vaishnavismschool of Hinduism brought about significant changes in the history of the state. Manipur's early history is set forth in the Cheitharon Kumbaba, a chronicle of royal events which claims to record events from the foundation of the ruling dynasty in 33–AD. Since ancient times, the Meitei people and Meitei-Pangals (Muslims, not original inhabitants) have lived in the valleys of Manipur alongside the Nagas and Kukis (illegal immigrants refugees from outside manipur, they were assimilated into manipuris due to manipuris' soft hearted and friendly culture) in the hills.
Manipur became a princely state under British rule in 1891; the last of the independent states to be incorporated into British India. During the Second World War, Manipur was the scene of many fierce battles between Japanese and Allied forces. The Japanese were beaten back before they could enter Imphal, which proved to be one of the turning points of the War.
After the war, the Manipur Constitution Act, 1947, established a democratic form of government with the Maharaja as the Executive Head and an elected legislature. In 1949, King Budhachandra was summoned to Shillong, capital of the Indian province of Meghalaya where after much persuasion (the king later revealed they put a gun to his head) he signed a Treaty of Accession merging the kingdom into India. Thereafter the legislative assembly was dissolved and Manipur became part of the Republic of India in October, 1965. It was made a union territory in 1956 and a full-fledged state in 1972.


Mythological origins

Manipur had been known throughout the ages as Meitrabak, Kangleipak or Meiteileipak as well as by more than twenty other names. Sanamahi Laikan wrote that Manipur's new nomenclature was adopted in the eighteenth century during the reign of Meidingu Pamheiba. According to Sakok Lamlen, the area had different names according to the era. During the Hayachak period it was known as Mayai Koiren poirei namthak saronpung or Tilli Koktong Ahanba, then in the Khunungchak period as Meera Pongthoklam. Thereafter during the Langbachak era, it became Tilli Koktong Leikoiren and finally Muwapalli in the Konnachak epoch. During the latter part of its history, Manipur and its people were known by different names to their neighbours. TheShans or Pongs called the area Cassay, the Burmese Kathe, and the Assamese Meklee. In the first treaty between the British East India Company and Meidingu Chingthangkhomba(Bhagyachandra) signed in 1762, the kingdom was recorded as Meckley. Bhagyachandra and his successors issued coins engraved with the title of Manipureshwar, or lord of Manipur and the name Meckley was discarded. Later on, the Sanskritisation work, Dharani Samhita (1825–34) popularized the legends of the derivation of Manipur's name.
Prehistoric Manipur

Prehistory of Kangleipak or Manipur
Manipur is situated on the tertiary ranges of a branch of the eastern Himalayas running south and forms part of the compact physiographic unit following the great divide between the Brahmaputraand Chindwin valleys. North east India holds the key to the understanding the scope, depth, dimension and cultural diffusion between south and southeast Asia which played a crucial role in transforming the northeast Indian ethnographic canvas from prehistoric times onwards. Manipur appears to have absorbed Bronze Age cultural traits from Thailand and Upper Burma where indigenous early metal age culture developed at a comparatively early date around 4000 BC.
Old Stone Age
  • Khangkhui Caves – These four caves are located near Khangkhui some 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) south east of Urkhul on the border with Upper Burma. Archaeological excavations have found stone and bone tools as well as animal remains as evidence of Stone Age habitation of these caves. The first evidence of Pleistocene man in Manipur dates back to about 30,000 BC. Other notable caves nearby include Hunding Caves, 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) south of Urkhul, Purul Cave in Purul and the Song Ring rock shelter at Beyang village in Tengnoupal.
  • Machi – One of archaeologist O.K. Singh's most valuable finds is a pebble chopping tool discovered in Maring Naga Village, Machi in the Chandel district. The Marings are the one the oldest tribes of Manipur and this find is considered a landmark in the Paleolithic archaeology of Manipur as it confirms that the area was inhabited by neolithic people from the early Stone Age or lower Paleolithic period.

New Stone Age
  • Hoabinhian Culture – A large number of Neolithic celts have been discovered throughout Manipur and are now preserved in the State College Museum Archaeology Department. These celts are mostly edge-ground pebble and flake tools and show the presence of Neolithic culture in Manipur.
  • Tharon Caves – Finds in these caves in the Tamenglong district provide the first concrete evidence of Hoabinhian culture in India, a Mesolithic southeast Asian cultural pattern based on historic finds from the village of Haobihian in North Vietnam. Similar relics have been found in Thailand at the Spirit Caves as well as in Burma and other places in Southeast Asia. Tharon is a Liangmei Naga village where the five caves and rock shelters were first explored in December 1979 by the State Archaeology Department.
The site is located at 93.32’ longitude and 25.3’ latitude in the midst of the thickly forested Reyangling Hills, about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) north of Tharon Village. Locally, the caves are known as Kalemki (from Kalem (bat) and Ki (house), literally: The house of the bat). A stream called Kalem-ki-magu runs near the caves, which are composed of Barail series sandstone and were probably formed by rock weathering. Tharon's edge-ground pebble tools are similar to finds from Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia and the Philippines where they were used about 7000–8000 BC. The Tharons have a distinct affinity with the Haobihian culture and before the advent of the present Tibeto-Burman inhabitants of the area, Proto-Australoid people occupied these caves around 5000–4000 BC.
  • Napachik – A Stone Age site dating to the second millennium BC, Napachik is a small hillock near Meetei Village, Wangu in the southern part of the Imphal Valley, on the right bank of the Manipur River which flows into the Chindwin River in Burma. The edge-ground tools and corded wares of Napachik are similar to those found in the Spirit Cave in Thailand, the Padubtin Cave in Burma along with Haobihian sites in Vietnam although tripod wares were also found at one the Haobihian sites. Possible dates for the Neolithic age in north east India are between 500 BC 2000 BC. It is probable that while Napachik culture has an affinity with that of Haobihian while handmade corded tripod wares from Chinese Neolithic culture arrived in the area around the second millennium BC showing that the Manipur valley was already inhabited by Neolithic men in or around 2000 BC.
Early rulers
  • Kangba, the First King – He was the first king about whom the chronicles provide details. Born in the Koubru hills of the northwest Manipur Valley, Kangba was the son of Tangja Lila Pakhangba. Meeteileipak (Manipur) was known as Tilli Koktong Leikoiren during the Kangba Period.
  • Moriya or Maliya Phambalcha – The next confirmed king was Maliya (or Mariya) Phambalcha. According to the Kangbalon, Koikoi, the first son of Kangba, ascended the throne and assumed the regnal title of Mariya Phambalcha. Many scholars fix Maliya Phambalcha's era to 1379 BC and the time he established the Meetei Calendar.
According to the Thiren Layat, there were nineteen rulers up until the joint reign of Nongdanhan and Taohuireng. The ancient Numit Kappa text compares the two brothers as if they were two suns. The hymn of Numit Kappa used in the rite known as Chupsaba and sometimes sung as a ballad, narrates these events.
Ancient Manipur
The source for this era is the Cheitharol Kumbaba, the royal chronicle of Manipur or Kangleipak.
  • Nongda Lairen Pakhangba (33–154 AD)
Nongda Lairen Pakhangba was an extraordinarily gifted ruler and the creator of Manipur (or Meeteileipak or Kangleipak). He was the first coroneted historical ruler whose reign began in 33  according to the Cheitharol Kumbaba. Meetei culture took root during the reign of Pakhangba as did sagol kangjei (Polo), with the first match played between the chiefs of different regions. Polo was played in imitation of a game from the traditional Hayachak era. Laisna took a great role in organizing the game.
  • Khuiyoi Tompok
Pakhangba was succeeded by his son, Khuiyoi Tompok, in 154 AD. Known as the inventor of the drum (pung), his reign was a peaceful one. Technical innovation in metallurgy was also recorded in the chronicle.
  • Naophangba (428–518 AD)
The treatise on the construction of the places of Kangla and Kangla Houba are believed to have been written by Ashangba Laiba. Muslims first came to Manipur in 615 as preachers led by Sa'ad ibn abi Waqqas. Shaikh Muhammad Sani led a thousand strong army of Pasha troops from Taraf (southern Sylhet) in 1606 AD. They settled in Manipur and took local wives while lands were provided to them under the royal directive of king Khagemba.
  • Loiyamba (1074–1122 AD)
Known as the "Great law Giver", his reign was an important period in the history of Kangleibak. Along with the military consolidation of the kingdom, Loiyamba introduced administrative reforms, which provided the backbone of the kingdom's administration for the next seven centuries. He systematized the administrative divisions of the country by creating six lups or divisions as well as introducing the Pana System. Loiyamba Shinyen left a well-organized society and economy in Meeteileipak.
Medieval Manipur
  • Meidingu Ningthou Khomba (1432–1467)
The "Conqueror of Tamu", according to Ningthourol Lambuba he was originally known as Charairongba. One of the most well-known events of Charairongba's reign was a raid by the Tangkhul tribe from Tuisem village while he was absent. His queen Linthoingambi demonstrated courage and skill, hoodwinking the raiding tribesmen into defeat and captivity. The Meitei state was completely established during his reign.
  • Meidingu Kiyamba (1467–1508)
Known as the "Conqueror of Kabaw Valley", he was formerly called Thangwai Ningthouba. Credit for the military and territorial expansion of the kingdom was given to King Ningthou khomba and his son Kiyamba who had an equally colourful mother, Linthoingambi, the warrior queen in Manipur's history. This period sees the emergence of Medingu Senbi Kiyamba, who became king in 1476, at the age of 24. He was a friend of the King of Pong (Shan Kingdom), who presented him with a stone, known as PHEIYA (Almighty). After this, worship of God in the form of a sacred stone began.
  • Meidingu Khagemba (1597&ndash1652)
The "Conqueror of the Chinese" (khagi: Chinese and Ngamba:conqueror), he consolidated and expanded his father's kingdom of Meitrabak, later successfully defending it from foreign invaders such as the Muslims, the Kachari and the Shans of the Kabaw Valley. Muslim settlement became more prominent after 1606 with the establishment of a Muslim Personal Law Board headed by a Qazi appointed by the king. According to the chronicle, the Meetei king attacked the principal Chinese village (or town) along with the many brave Meetei warrior and defeated their chief Chouopha Hongdei. Khagemba introduced bell metal currency in the kingdom and a number of coins from his reign have been found. His reign was considered to be the golden age of Manipuri literature. He was a great patron of the traditional Lainingthou Cult. A contemporary text, the Khagemba Langjei, expresses the supremecy of Sanamahi as the Universal God of the Meeteis. Learned scholars who were well-known authorities on religion and theology in attendance at Khagemba's court were ApoimachaKonok ThengraSalam SanaYumnam TombaKhongngakhul Toppa and Langon Lukhoi. Khagemba was succeeded by his son Khunjaoba in 1652 who fortified Kangla and excavated a moat in the front of the brick gateway constructed by his father. Paikhomba ascended the throne in 1666 and consolidated his power in the valley. His kingdom extended as far as Samjok to the east and Takhel Tripura to the west. In 1679 the two Mughal (Chaghtai Turk) princes Shah Shuja and Mirza Baisanghar led a 37 strong Mughal entourage and settled in Manipur by taking local wives.
  • Meidingu Charairongba (1697–1709)
With the dawn of eighteenth century, Meitrabak achieved the full development of its culture, economy and state system. In this revolutionary period in the evolution of Meitrabak, three kings, father, son, and a great grandson: CharairongbaPamheiba and Chingthang Khomba played significant roles. After the death of Paikhomba, his nephew Charairongba, the son of his younger brother Tonsenngamba ascended the throne in 1697. His reign began the transition period from traditional Meetei culture to a Hinduised Meetei Society. There were continual trade contacts and social relationships between Manipur and Burma. In 1702, the Toongoo dynasty of Awa (Burma) sent emissaries asking for the hand of a Meetei Princess. Charirongba gave his daughter Chakpa Makhao Ngambi in marriage to the Burmese King. He constructed several temples for Meitei deities such as PanthoibiSanamahi as well as ones dedicated to Hindu gods. Relations with Burma deteriorated and became stronger with India after the area's conversion to Vaishnavism.
Vaishnavism Era
Vaishnavism came to Manipur during this period and caused a significant change in the history of Manipur. The Meitei script was replaced with Bengali.
  • Meidingu Pamheiba (Garibnawaz) (1709–1748):
Pamheiba ascended the throne on the 23rd Day of Thawan (August) 1709. His Persian name Garibniwaz, meaning "kind to the poor", was given to him by Muslim immigrants and was adopted to be used in the coinage he issued. Pamheiba's rise to prominence as a military conqueror can be divided into three phases. The first phase (1710–17) focused on internal consolidation of hill tribes. Phase two (1728–33) involved war against the Burmese kingdom of Ava, and the third and final phase (1745–48) saw a war against Tripura in the northeast. As a result, Pamheiba extended his kingdom from the Kabow Valley, to the east as far as Nongnang (Cachar) and Takhel (Tripura) in the west.
Conversion to Vaishnavism
Pamheiba was also a major religious reformer and under his royal patronage Shri Chaitanya's school of Gaudiya Vaishnavism gradually spread across Meitrabak. The Cheitharol Kumbabarecords that in October 1717, Graibnawaz was initiated into Vaishnavism by Guru Gopal Das. Later in life he also took instruction from the Ramanandi Sampradaya school of thought.
Meitei Puya Meithaba (Burning of the Meitei Puyas)
At the instigation of Santidas Gosain(he literally destroyed a civilization the consequences of which is evident today,he dessimated manipur just because of his greed and unsatiable appetite of women and power,the seeds of his lust and debauchary is still dividing and abusing this once glorious and harmonious kingdom,his disgusting descendants still advocates his legacy,he can be compared only with an animal biting the hand that fed and tended him), Meetei Puya (holy books) were consigned to the flames at Kangla Uttra on the 23rd day of Wakching in 1729
Sanamahi Laikan recorded the events surrounding Sanskritisation which paved the way for "Meeteileipak" or "Kangleibak" to become "Manipur". Many other Meeteileipak place names in the Manipuri language (Meeteilon) were also changed to Sanskrit. The Hinduised word "gotra" was introduced for the Seven Yek/Salais of Meeteis. Between 1717 and 1737, the Sanskrit epic parvas the Mahabharata and Ramayana were translated into Meeteilon while many other Sanskrit Parvas were written by Angom Gopi (1710–1780), the renowned scholar and poet at the court of Pamheiba. The king and all the Meeteis were converted as Kshatriya by relating to Mahabharata's Manipur. Pamheiba's forty year reign marked the zenith of Meeteileipak in all aspects – religious reform, military conquest, cultural and literary achievements and sound economics. He issued several coins during his reign engraved with his different names: ‘Manipureswar’, ‘Mekeleswar’, ’Garibaniwaza’. He abdicated the throne in favour of his son Chit Sai (1748–52) in 1748 and was then driven out to Cachar by his brother Bharat Sai in 1752. Gourashyam (1753–58) ousted Bharat Sai in 1753 and ascended the throne. In 1758, the Burmese king Alaungpaya invaded Meeteileipak.
  • Meidingu Chingthang Khomba or Maharaja Bhagyachandra (1749–1798)
In 1759, Gourashyam gave up the throne in favour of his brother Bhagayachandra who restored normalcy in the kingdom and tried to regain the lost glory of Meeteileipak/Kangleipak. In 1764, the new Burmese king Hsinbyushin invaded Manipur again through the Kabaw Valley. The Meetei force were defeated at Tamu and the king fled to the Ahom kingdom in Assam. He regained the throne of Kangleipak in 1768 with help of Ahom king Rajeshwar and went on to rule for more than 30 years, signing a treaty with East India Company in 1762. His reign was a landmark in the history of Meeteileipak for the propagation of Cheitanya's School of Vaishnavism. Afterwards, Meeteileipak came more under the influence of Bengali language and literature. Bhagayachandra earned the title of "Rajarshi" as a king who had become a royal sage.
Origin of the Meetei or Manipuri Classical Dance, Rasa lila
According to Cheitharol Kumpaba, in February 1776, the king went to Kaina Hill in search of the jackfruit tree. Four images of Krishna were then carved from jackfruit wood. The ritual installation of Shri Govindajee was performed at the Rashmondal of Langthabal palace in 1780. The Meeteis worshipped God through dance as performed in the Lai Haraoba (Merry Making of God). As revealed in the dream, and with the help of his daughter Princess Bimbabati known as Shija Laioibi who was symbolically married and dedicated her life to Shri Govindajee, he composed theRasa lila. Meidingu Chingthangkhomba dedicated three forms of Rasa lila to Krishna — Kunja Ras, Maha Ras and Basanta Ras.
Anglo-Burmese Events
There were a number of significant wars during this era between the Manipuris, the Burmese and the British.
  • Meidingu Marjit (1813–1819)
With the help from the Burmese kingdom of Ava, Marjit invaded Kangleipak in 1813 where he defeated his brother Chaurajit. He then ascended the throne in 1813 and ruled for six years.
Chahi Taret Khuntakpa, the Seven Years Devastation (1819–26)
Meitrabak had never before faced such a national catastrophe as that brought about by the Burmese conquest. The new king of Ava, Bagyidaw, invited Marjit to attend his coronation ceremony and to pay homage to him. Marjit refused to attend the coronation, which offended the Burmese king who then sent a large force under the command of General Maha Bandula to humble Marjit. Marjit was defeated and fled to Cachar. Meitrabak was then brought under the rule of Ava for the seven years between 1819 and 1826, which is known as Chahi Taret Kuntakpa in the history of Meitrabak. The flight of Marjit from Meitrabak and the conquest by Ava in 1819 marks the end of the mediaeval period in the history of Meitrabak
Meitrabak Princes in Cachar
In the early nineteenth century, after being dislodged from Meitrabak, its princes made Cachar a springboard for the reconquest of the territory. In 1819, three brothers occupied Cachar and drove Govinda Chandra out to Sylhet. The kingdom of Cachar, divided between Govinda Chandra and Chaurajit in 1818, was repartitioned after the flight of Govind Chandra among the three Meitrabak princes. Chaurajit got the eastern portion of Cachar bordering Meitrabak which was ruled from Sonai. Gambhir Singh was given the land west of Tillain hill and his headquarters was at Gumrah, Marjit Singh ruled Hailakandi from Jhapirbond.
  • Meidingngu Gambhir Singh (1826–1834)
With the 500 strong Meetei Levy and with help from the British East India Company, Gambhir Singh expelled the Burmese of Ava from Meitrabak beyond the Ningthi Turel (Chindwin River). He ruled the country from Langthabal and died on 9 January 1834 to be succeeded by his infant son Chandrakirti / Ningthem Pishak (1834–1844).
  • Meidingngu Nara Singh (1844–1850)
He was the second cousin of Gambhir Singh and the regent. Kumidini, mother of Chandrakirti, was dissatisfied with the arrangement and fled to Cachar with her son. At the wish of the people of Meitrabak he ascended the throne in 1844 at the age of 51. He then shifted the capital from Langthabal to Kangla where he reconstructed the two statues of the Kangla Sha at Uttra made by Meidingngu Chaurajit and that the Burmese had dismantled and destroyed. Meidingngu Nara Singh died on 10 April 1850 and was succeeded by his brother Meidingngu Debendra Singh (1850).
  • Meidingngu Chandrakirti (1850–86)
Chandrakirti came from Cachar, defeated Debendra and regained the throne in 1850. During his reign, all the sacred and holy places inside Kangla were developed and maintained. Kangla thus became a well-fortified palace surrounded by five layers of defences, including the inner and outer moats, brick walls, as well as an earthen rampart and citadel surrounding the palace in the centre. He died on Friday 20 May 1886.

British Rule

  • Surchandra succeeded his father to the throne in 1886 when there were revolts against him led by Sana Borachaoba and Dinachandra that proved unsuccessful. However, on 21 September 1890, Princes Zila Ngamba and Angousana with the support of Senapati Tikendrajit, revolted against Surchandra who abdicated and left Meitrabak for Brindaban (Vrindavan). His brother Kulachandra Dhaja ascended the throne in 1890 and Tikendrajit became the Yuvraj. Surchandra requested the government of India to reinstate him on the throne but the British refused his request and decided to recognize Kulachandra as king of Meitrabak and to arrest Yuvraj Tikendrajit. Chief Commissioner of Assam, James Wallace Quinton, came to Manipur to execute the order of the Government of India with a 400 strong escort under the command of Colonel Charles Mac Donald Skene, D.S.O. This event led to the The Anglo-Manipur War of 1891. On hearing the news, Meidingngu Kulachandra sent Kangabam Chidananda (Thangal General) with seven hundred Meeteisepoys to Mao Thana, a Meitrabak outpost on the border of Nagaland, then called the Naga Hills, to received the Chief Commissioner of Assam and to make arrangements for a large escort for the Chief Commissioner. On 22 March 1891, at about 10 a.m. Quinton arrived at Imphal with his escort. Meidingngu Kulachandra Dhaja and his younger brothers welcomed him at the western Gate of the Kangla Palace. Quinton informed Meidingngu Kulachandra that at noon there would be a Durbar (court) held at the Residency. Thus did Quinton attempt to apprehend Yuvraj Tikendrajit but he was not successful. Quinton then consulted The political agent Grimwood as well as Colonel Skene and decided to arrest the Yuvraj forcibly. Grimwood was then speared to death and Quinton, Colonel Skene, Mr. Cossins, Lieutenant Simpson and Bulger were subsequently beheaded by the public executioner in front of the Kangla Sha. As soon as the news of the failure of the plan to arrest Yuvraj Tikendrajit and the execution of the British officers reached the Government of India, three columns of troops were sent to Meitrabak from KohimaSilchar and Tamu under the command of Major General Henry Collett, Col. R.H.F. Rennick and Brigadier General T. Graham respectively. The column moving in from Tamu faced the strongest resistance from Meitrabak and major hand-to-hand combat took place atKhongjom on 25 April. Maipak Sana, Wangkheirakpa, Yengkhoiba, Chongtha Miya, Paona Brajabasi, Khumbong Major, Wangkhei Meiraba, Chinglen Sana, Loitongba Jamadar, Keisam Jamadar, Heirang Khonja and a number of brave Meetei soldiers sacrificed their lives on the battlefield in defence of their motherland. Meitrabak lost its independence to the British on 27 April 1891.Meidingngu Surchandra (1886–90)
  • Meidingngu Churachand Singh (1891–1941)
The British government selected Meidingngu Churachand, minor son of Chaobiyaima as the king of Meitrabak. A new Kangla Palace was constructed at Wangkhei and Kangla was kept under British occupation. During British colonial rule, Kangla was known as Manipur Fort and a battalion of Assam Rifles was stationed there. Noted Manipuri writer, M. K. Binodini Devi (1922–2011) was the youngest daughter of the ruler.The British left Manipur in 1947 following Indian independence
Merger with India
Meidingu Bodhchandra ascended the throne in 1941, after his father, Churachand, died at Nabadwip in November the same year. Bodhchandra's accession was to mark a new and traumatic period in the history of Manipur. Since the world political scenario had changed, it impacted directly on his administration of the country. In January 1942, he convened the first meeting of the National War Front in the palace and both he and his queen urged the people to support the war effort. In February 1942, Imphal was bombed for the first time. Many people were killed and a large percentage of the population, including most of the administrators and traders, fled from Manipur leaving the Imphal valley temporarily deserted. There was an inevitable escalation in prices, and the destruction of houses and goods. For the first time in the sub-continent, the Indian National flag was raised by Indian National Army General Malik at Moirang in the southern part of the Manipur Valley on 14 April 1944. The old world of feudalism and Brahmanism was passing while the end of colonial power resulted in democratic change in the princely state of Manipur. In January 1946, the council of princes recommended the establishment of popularly elected governments in Indian states. Within Manipur too, this movement was already under way. Hijam Irabotreturned to Imphal in March 1946 and quickly reestablished contact with his former political colleagues from the Hindu nationalist Nikhil Manipuri Mahasabha, which would be the future political party in Manipur. On 12 December 1946, Meidingu Bodhchandra announced the formation of a committee that would draft the constitution for responsible government in Manipur. After a great deal of effort, the work of the constitution committee was completed by July 1947. On the eve of Indian independence, Bodhchandra issued the order promulgating the interim Manipur State Council. The brother of the Maharajah, M.K. Priyobarta was appointed as the first Chief Minister of Manipur. Thus Bodchandra declared that Manipur was now a sovereign state, linked to India only by the Act of Accession. Eventually, the Pakhangba flag was raised, first in Kangla and subsequently in the palace compound. The first election in Manipur was held in June 1948 with the participation of the Congress Party, Praja Shanti, Krishak Sabha and other alliances. The Praja Shanti were invited to form the government in coalition with Krishak Sabha. The post of Chief Minister was offered to Priyobarta who was the Chief Minister of the outgoing interim government. The democratically elected state government of Manipur was destined to endure for less than a year. On 15 October 1949, the Manipur State Assembly and council were dissolved with the handover ceremony taking place on the polo ground of Manipur. On the same day, Rawal Amar Singh became the first Indian Chief Commissioner of Manipur.