Sunga Empire

The Sunga Empire  or Shunga Empire was a Aryan dynasty from Magadha that controlled vast areas of the Indian Subcontinent from around 185 to 73 BCE. The dynasty was established by Pusyamitra Sunga, after the fall of the Maurya Empire. Its capital was Pataliputra, but later emperors such as Bhagabhadra also held court at Besnagar, modern Vidisha in Eastern Malwa. 
Pushyamitra Sunga ruled for 36 years and was succeeded by his son Agnimitra. There were ten Sunga rulers. The empire is noted for its numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers. They fought battles with the KalingasSatavahanas, the Indo-Greeks, and possibly the Panchalas and Mathuras.
Art, education, philosophy, and other forms of learning flowered during this period including small terracotta images, larger stone sculptures, and architectural monuments such as the chaitya at Bhaja Caves, the Stupa at Bharhut, and the renowned Great Stupa at Sanchi. The Sunga rulers helped to establish the tradition of royal sponsorship of learning and art. The script used by the empire was a variant of Brahmi and was used to write the Sanskrit language.
The Sunga Empire played an imperative role in patronizing Indian culture at a time when some of the most important developments in Hinduthought were taking place. Patanjali`s Yoga Sutras and Mahabhasya were composed in this period. Artistry also progressed with the rise of the Mathura school of art. Thereafter, there was a downfall of the dynasty and Kanvas succeeded around 73 BCE.
The Shunga dynasty was established in 185 BCE, about 50 years after Ashoka's death, when the emperor Brhadratha, the last of theMauryan rulers, was assassinated by the then commander-in-chief of the Mauryan armed forces, Pusyamitra Sunga, while he was taking the Guard of Honour of his forces. Pusyamitra Sunga then ascended the throne.

Pushyamitra Sunga became the ruler of the Magadha and neighbouring territories. The empire of Pushyamitra was extended up to Narmada in the south, and controlled Jalandhar and Sialkot in the Punjab in the north-western regions, and the city of Ujjain  in central India. The Kabul Valley and much of the Punjab passed into the hands of the Indo-Greeks and the Deccan to the Satavahanas.
Pushyamitra died after ruling for 36 years (187–151 BCE). He was succeeded by son Agnimitra. This prince is the hero of a famous drama by one of India's greatest playwrights, Kalidasa. Agnimitra was viceroy of Vidisha when the story takes place. The power of the Sungas gradually weakened. It is said that there were ten Sunga emperors.
The Sungas were succeeded by the Kanva dynasty around 73 BCE.

Pushyamitra Sunga became the ruler of the Magadha and neighbouring territories. The empire of Pushyamitra was extended up to Narmada in the south, and controlled Jalandhar and Sialkot in the Punjab in the north-western regions, and the city of Ujjain[3] in central India. The Kabul Valley and much of the Punjab passed into the hands of the Indo-Greeks and the Deccan to the Satavahanas.
Pushyamitra died after ruling for 36 years (187–151 BCE). He was succeeded by son Agnimitra. This prince is the hero of a famous drama by one of India's greatest playwrights, Kalidasa. Agnimitra was viceroy of Vidisha when the story takes place. The power of the Sungas gradually weakened. It is said that there were ten Sunga emperors.
The Sungas were succeeded by the Kanva dynasty around 73 BCE.
Following the Mauryans, the first Brahmin emperor was Pusyamitra Sunga, and is believed by some historians to have persecuted Buddhists and contributed to a resurgence of Brahmanism that forced Buddhism outwards to KashmirGandhara and Bactria. However, there is doubt as to whether he did persecute Buddhists actively. 
Later Sunga emperors were seen as amenable to Buddhism and as having contributed to the building of the stupa at Bharhut. 
Some writers believe that Brahmanism competed in political and spiritual realm with Buddhism  in the Gangetic plains. Buddhism flourished in the realms of the Bactrian kings. 
Some Indian scholars are of the opinion that the orthodox Sunga emperors were not intolerant towards Buddhism and that Buddhism prospered during the time of the Sunga emperors. The existence of Buddhism in Bengal in the Sunga period can also be inferred from a terracotta tablet that was found at Tamralipti and is on exhibit at the Asutosh Museum, University of Calcutta.
  • An inscription at Bodh Gaya at the Mahabodhi Temple records the construction of the temple as follows:
"The gift of Nagadevi the wife of Emperor Brahmamitra."
  • Another inscription reads:
"The gift of Kurangi, the mother of living sons and the wife of Emperor Indragnimitra, son of Kosiki. The gift also of Srima of the royal palace shrine. 

 Cunningham has regretted the loss of the latter part of these important records. As regards the first coping inscription, he has found traces of eleven Brahmi letters after "Kuramgiye danam", the first nine of which read "rajapasada-cetika sa". Bloch reads these nine letters as "raja-pasada-cetikasa" and translates this expression in relation to the preceding words:
"(the gift of Kurangi, the wife of Indragnimitra and
the mother of living sons), "to the caitya (cetika)
of the noble temple", taking the word raja before
pasada as an epithet on ornans, distinguishing the
temple as a particularly large and stately building
similar to such expressions as rajahastin 'a noble
elephant', rajahamsa `a goose (as distinguished from
hamsa 'a duck'), etc." Cunningham has translated the
expression by "the royal palace, the caitya",
suggesting that "the mention of the raja-pasada would
seem to connect the donor with the king's family,"
Luders doubtfully suggests "to the king's temple" as
a rendering of "raja-pasada-cetikasa."

Wars of the Sungas

War and conflict characterized the Sunga period. They are known to have warred with the KalingasSatavahanas, the Indo-Greeks, and possibly the Panchalas and Mathuras.
The Shunga Empire's wars with the Indo-Greek Kingdom figure greatly in the history of this period. From around 180 BCE the Greco-Bactrian rulerDemetrius, conquered the Kabul Valley and is theorized to have advanced into the trans-Indus. The Indo Greek Menander is credited with either joining or leading a campaign to Pataliputra with other Indian rulers; however, very little is known about the exact nature and success of the campaign. The net result of these wars remains uncertain.
The Anushasanaparava of the Mahabharata affirms that the city of Mathura was under the joint control of the Yavanas and the Kambojas. Some interpretations of the Mahabharata and Yuga Purana have attempted to account for this:
Also the Hindu text of the Yuga Purana, which describes Indian historical events in the form of a prophecy, relates the attack of the Indo-Greeks on the capital Pataliputra, a magnificent fortified city with 570 towers and 64 gates according to Megasthenes, and describes the ultimate destruction of the city's walls:
"Then, after having approached Saketa together with the Panchalas and the Mathuras, the Yavanas, valiant in battle, will reach Kusumadhvaja ("The town of the flower-standard", Pataliputra). Then, once Puspapura (another name of Pataliputra) has been reached and its celebrated mud[-walls] cast down, all the realm will be in disorder."   
Nevertheless, very little can be said with great certainty. However, what does appear clear is that the two realms appeared to have established normalized diplomatic relations in the succeeding reigns of their respective rulers.Pushyamitra is recorded to have performed two Ashvamedha Yagnas and Sunga imperial inscriptions have extended as far as Jalandhar. Scriptures such as the Divyavadhana note that his rule extended even farther to Sialkot, in the Punjab. Moreover, if it was lost, Mathura was regained by the Sungas around 100 BCE (or by other indigenous rulers: the Arjunayanas (area of Mathura) and Yaudheyasmention military victories on their coins ("Victory of the Arjunayanas", "Victory of the Yaudheyas"), and during the 1st century BCE, the Trigartas, Audumbaras and finally theKunindas also started to mint their own coins). Accounts of battles between the Greeks and the Sunga in Northwestern India are also found in the Mālavikāgnimitram, a play by Kālidāsa which describes a battle between Greek cavalrymen and Vasumitra, the grandson of Pushyamitra, on the Indus river, in which the Indians defeated the Greeks and Pushyamitra successfully completed the Ashvamedha Yagna. 
The Indo-Greeks and the Sungas seem to have reconciled and exchanged diplomatic missions around 110 BCE, as indicated by the Heliodorus pillar, which records the dispatch of a Greek ambassador named Heliodorus, from the court of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas, to the court of the Sunga emperorBhagabhadra at the site of Vidisha in central India.
Artistry on the subcontinent also progressed with the rise of the Mathura school, which is considered the indigenous counterpart to the more Hellenistic Gandhara school of Afghanistan and Pakistan.While there is much debate on the religious politics of the Sunga dynasty, it is recognized for a number of contributions. Art, education, philosophy, and other learning flowered during this period. Most notably, Patanjali's Yoga Sutras and Mahabhasya were composed in this period. It is also noted for its subsequent mention in the Malavikaagnimitra. This work was composed by Kalidasa in the later Gupta period, and romanticized the love of Malavika and King Agnimitra, with a background of court intrigue.
During the historical Sunga period (185 to 73 BCE), Buddhist activity also managed to survive somewhat in central India (Madhya Pradesh) as suggested by some architectural expansions that were done at the stupas of Sanchi and Barhut, originally started under Emperor Ashoka. It remains uncertain whether these works were due to the weakness of the control of the Sungas in these areas, or a sign of tolerance on their part.
The last of the Sunga emperor was Devabhuti (83–73 BCE). He was assassinated by his minister (Vasudeva Kanva) and is said to have been overfond of the company of women. The Sunga dynasty was then replaced by the subsequent Kanvas.

Nanda Empire

The Nanda Empire originated from the region of Magadha in ancient India during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. At its greatest extent, the Nanda Empire extended from Bengal in the east, to Punjab in the west and as far south as the Vindhya Range. The Nanda Empire was later conquered by Chandragupta Maurya, who founded the Maurya Empire.
Mahapadma Nanda, who has been described as "the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas", defeated the Panchalas, Kasis, Haihayas, Kalingas, Asmakas, Kurus, Maithilas, Surasenas and the Vitihotras; to name a few .[citation needed]. He expanded his territory south of the Deccanplains. Mahapadma Nanda, who died at the age of 88, was the ruler of the Nanda dynasty for all but 12 of the dynasty's 100 years. The Nandas who usurped the throne of the Shishunaga dynasty were thought to be of low origin with some sources stating that the dynasty's founder, Mahapadma, was the son of a Shudra . 
The Nandas are sometimes described as the first empire builders in the recorded history of India. They inherited the large kingdom ofMagadha and wished to extend it to yet more distant frontiers. To this purpose they built up a vast army, consisting of 200,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 2,000 war chariots and 3,000 war elephants (at the lowest estimates). According to Plutarch however, the size of the Nanda army was even larger, numbering 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8,000 war chariots, and 6,000 war elephants. However, the Nandas never had the opportunity to see their army up against Alexander, who invaded India at the time of Dhana Nanda, since Alexander had to confine his campaign to the plains of Punjab, for his forces, frightened by the prospect of facing a formidable foe, mutinied at the Hyphasis River (the modernBeas River) refusing to march any further. This river thus marks the eastern-most extent of Alexander's conquests.
      List of Nanda rulers

  1. Mahapadma Nanda (c. 424 BC – ?)
  2. Pandhuka
  3. Panghupati
  4. Bhutapala
  5. Rashtrapala
  6. Govishanaka
  7. Dashasidkhaka
  8. Kaivarta
  9. Mahendra
  10. Dhana Nanda (Argames) (? – c. 321 BC)

Shishunaga dynasty

The Shishunaga dynasty is believed to have been the third ruling dynasty of Magadha, a kingdom in ancient India. But according to thePuranas, this dynasty is the second ruling dynasty of Magadha, which succeeded the Barhadratha dynasty. 
Shishunaga, the founder of this dynasty was initially an amatya (minister) of the last Haryanka dynasty ruler Nagadasaka and ascended to the thone after a popular rebellion in c. 413 BCE.  The capital of this dynasty initially was Rajagriha, but later shifted to Pataliputra, near the present day Patna during the reign of Kakavarna. According to tradition, Kakavarna was succeeded by his ten sons. This dynasty was succeeded by the Nanda dynasty in c.345 BCE.
Shishunaga (also called King Sisunaka) was the founder of this dynasty, known as the Shishunaga or Shaishunaga dynasty. He established theMagadha empire in 413 BCE. This empire, with its original capital in Rajgriha, later shifted to Pataliputra (both currently in the Indian state of Bihar). The Shishunaga dynasty in its time was the rulers of one of the largest empires of the Indian subcontinent.
According to the Puranas, Shishunaga was succeeded by his son Kakavarna and according to the Sinhala chronicles by his son Kalashoka. On the basis of the evidence of the Ashokavadana, Hermann JacobiWilhelm Geiger and Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar concluded that both are same. During Shishunaga's reign, he was the governor of Varanasi. Two most significant events of his reign are the Second Buddhist council atVaishali and the final transfer of capital to Pataliputra. According to the Harshacharita, he was killed by a dagger thrust in to his throat in the vicinity of his capital. 
According to tradition, ten sons of Kalashoka ruled simultaneously. The Mahabodhivamsa states their names as Bhadrasena, Korandavarna, Mangura, Sarvanjaha, Jalika, Ubhaka, Sanjaya, Koravya, Nandivardhana and Panchamaka. Only one of them mentioned in the Puranic lists, Nandivardhana. Nandivardhana or Mahanandin was probably the last ruler of this dynasty, his empire was inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda.
Shishunaga dynasty rulers
Shishunaga (413–395 BCE)
Kakavarna Kalashoka (395–367 BCE)
Mahanandin (367–345 BCE)

Haryanka dynasty

The Haryanka dynasty was the second ruling dynasty of Magadha, an ancient kingdom in India, which succeeded the Barhadratha dynasty. According to the Puranas, the second ruling dynasty was the Shaishunga dynasty, but an earlier authority, Ashvagosha in his Buddhacharitarefers to Bimbisara, who is mentioned as a ruler of the Shaishunaga dynasty in the Puranas, as a scion of the Haryanka-kula.  According to another Buddhist text, the Mahavamsa, Bimbisara was not the founder of this dynasty, as he was anointed king by his father at the age of fifteen. According to Turnour and N.L. Dey, the name of the father of Bimbisara was Bhatiya or Bhattiya, but the Puranas refer him as Hemajit, Kshemajit, Kshetroja or Ksetrauja and the Tibetan texts mention him as Mahapadma. 
The reign of this dynasty probably began in 684 BCE. Initially, the capital was Rajagriha. Later, it was shifted to Pataliputra, near the present day Patna in India. This dynasty was succeeded by the Shishunaga dynasty.
The Haryanka king Bimbisara was responsible for expanding the boundaries of his kingdom through matrimonial alliances and conquest. The land ofKosala fell to Magadha in this way. He is referred to as King Shrenik in Jain scriptures.
Estimates place the territory ruled by this early dynasty at 300 leagues in diameter, and encompassing 80,000 small settlements.
Bimbsara was contemporary of Lord Mahavir and devout follower of Buddha. He remained a devout devotee and follower of Buddha throughout his life.
In some sources, Bimbisara was imprisoned and killed by his son and successor, Ajatasattu (or Ajatashatru), under whose rule the dynasty reached its largest extent.
Vaishali, ruled by the Licchavis, went to war with the kingdom of Magadha at some point, due to a border dispute involving gem mines.
He is thought to have ruled from 492 to 460 BCE. Due to his expanding stategy, he incorporated kashi and vajji into his kingdom. Lord Buddha got nirvan in his eighth year of his rule . He built a stupa in Rajgirha on the Ashes of Lord Buddha. First Bodh sangati was held during his rule in Rajgirh in which Bodh education was scripted in two books named sutpatika and vinyapatika. He ruled 28 years according to Purana and according to Bodh he ruled 32 years. Udayin killed him and became the king of magadha.
The Mahavamsa text tells that Udayabhadra eventually succeeded his father, Ajatashatru, moving the capital of the Magadha kingdom to Pataliputra, which under the later Mauryan dynasty, would become the largest city in the world.
He is believed to have ruled for sixteen years.
The kingdom had a particularly bloody succession. Anuruddha eventually succeeded Udaybhadra through assassination, and his son Munda succeeded him in the same fashion, as did his son Nagadasaka.
Due in part to this bloody dynastic feuding, it is thought that a civil revolt led to the emergence of the Shishunaga dynasty.


The Puranas  are a genre of important HinduJain and Buddhist religious texts, notably consisting of narratives of the history of the universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology, philosophy, and geography. 
Puranas usually give prominence to a particular deity, employing an abundance of religious and philosophical concepts. They are usually written in the form of stories related by one person to another. The Puranas are available in vernacular translations and are disseminated by Brahmin scholars, who read from them and tell their stories, usually in Katha sessions (in which a traveling Brahmin settles for a few weeks in a temple and narrates parts of a Purana, usually with a Bhakti perspective)
Vyasa, the narrator of the Mahabharata, is traditionally considered the compiler of the Puranas.  However, the earliest written versions date from the time of the Gupta Empire (third-fifth century CE) and much material may be dated, through historical references and other means, to this period and the succeeding centuries. The texts were probably written all over India.
The date of the production of the written texts does not define the date of origin of the Puranas.  On one hand, they existed in some oral form before being written  while at the same time, they have been incrementally modified well into the 16th century. 
An early reference is found in the Chandogya Upanishad (7.1.2). (circa 500 BCE). The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad refers to purana as the "fifth Veda",  itihāsapurāṇaṃ pañcamaṃ vedānāṃ, reflecting the early religious importance of these myths, presumably then in purely oral form. Importantly, the most famous form of itihāsapurāṇaṃ is the Mahabharata. The term also appears in the Atharvaveda11.7.24. 
According to Pargiter,  the "original Purana" may date to the time of the final redaction of the Vedas. Gavin Flood connects the rise of the written Purana historically with the rise of devotional cults centring upon a particular deity in the Gupta era: the Puranic corpus is a complex body of materials that advance the views of various competing cults.  Wendy Doniger, based on her study of indologists, assigns approximate dates to the various Puranas. She dates Markandeya Purana to c. 250 CE (with one portion dated to c. 550 CE), Matsya Purana to c. 250–500 CE, Vayu Purana to c. 350 CE, Harivamsa and Vishnu Purana to c. 450 CE, Brahmanda Purana to c. 350–950 CE, Vamana Purana to c. 450–900 CE, Kurma Purana to c. 550–850 CE, and Linga Purana to c. 600–1000 CE. 
Common ideas are found throughout the corpus but it is not possible to trace the lines of influence of one Purana upon another so the corpus is best viewed as a synchronous whole. 
The All India Kashiraj Trust, formed under Vibhuti Narayan Singh, the Maharaja of Kashi, dedicated itself to publishing editions of the Puranas. 
According to Matysa Purana,  they are said to narrate five subjects, called Pancha Lakshana pañcalakṣaṇa(Sanskrit:Template:Sanskrit) ("five distinguishing marks", though some scholars have suggested that these are shared by other traditional religious scriptures): 
  1. Sarga: the creation of the universe.
  2. Pratisarga: secondary creations, mostly recreations after dissolution.
  3. Vamśa: genealogy of the gods and sages.
  4. Manvañtara: the creation of the human race and the first human beings. The epoch of the Manus' rule, 71 celestial Yugas or 308,448,000 years.
  5. Vamśānucaritam: the histories of the patriarchs of the lunar and solar dynasties.
The Puranas also lay emphasis on keeping a record of genealogies, as the Vayu Purana says, "to preserve the genealogies of gods, sages and glorious kings and the traditions of great men." The Puranic genealogies indicate, for example, that Sraddhadeva Manu lived 95 generations before the Bharata war. In Arrian's IndicaMegasthenes is quoted as stating that the Indians counted from "Dionysos" (Shiva) to "Sandracottus" (Chandragupta Maurya) "a hundred and fifty-three kings over six thousand and forty-three years."  The list of kings in Kalhana's Rajataranginigoes back to the 19th century BCE.
Of the many texts designated 'Puranas' the most important are the Mahāpurāṇas. These are always said to be eighteen in number, divided into three groups of six, though in fact they are not always counted in the same way. Combining the various lists Cornelia Dimmitt and J. A. B. van Buitenenhave collated twenty names, totalling 429,000 verses.

Name of puranas 
Agni15,400 versesContains details of Vastu Shastra and Gemology.
Bhagavata18,000 versesIndologist Ludo Rocher considers it to be the most celebrated and popular of the Puranas, telling of Vishnu's tenAvatars. Its tenth and longest canto narrates the deeds of Krishna, introducing his childhood exploits, a theme later elaborated by many Bhakti movements. 
Bhavishya14,500 versesContains a record of prophecies. Portions of the extant text are drawn from the law book of Manu. 
Brahma10,000 versesDescribes the Godavari and its tributaries. It is shortest of the Puranas.
Brahmanda12,000 versesIncludes Lalita Sahasranamam, a text some Hindus recite as prayer.
Brahmavaivarta17,000 versesDescribes ways to worship Devis, Krishna and Ganesha.
Garuda19,000 versesDescribes death and its aftermaths.
Harivamsa16,000 versesIs considered to be itihāsa (epic poetry).
Kurma17,000 verses
Linga11,000 versesDescribes the magnificence of Lingam, symbol of Shiva, and origin of the universe. It also contains many stories of Lingam one of which entails how Agni Lingam solved dispute between Vishnu and Brahma.
Markandeya9,000 versesThe Devi Mahatmya, an important text for the Shaktas, is embedded in it.
Matsya14,000 versesNarrates the story of Matsya, the first of ten major Avatars of Vishnu. It also contains genealogical details of various dynasties. 
Narada25,000 versesDescribes the greatness of Vedas and Vedangas.
Padma55,000 versesDescribes the greatness of Bhagavad Gita. Hence, it is also known as gītāmāhātmya (lit. the majesty of Gita).
Shiva24,000 versesDescribes the greatness of Shiva, greatness in worshiping Shiva and other stories about him.
Skanda81,100 versesDescribes the birth of Skanda (or Karthikeya), second son of Shiva. The longest Purana, it is an extraordinarily meticulous pilgrimage guide, containing geographical locations of pilgrimage centers in India, with related legends, parables, hymns and stories. Many untraced quotes are attributed to this text. 
Vamana10,000 versesDescribes areas around Kurukshetra in North India.
Varaha24,000 versesDescribes various forms prayer and devotional observances to Vishnu. Many illustrations also involve Shiva andDurga. 
Vayu24,000 verses
Vishnu23,000 versesDescribes the many mythic deeds of Vishnu and various ways to worship him.[26]

Puranas are classified according to qualification of persons who can understand them: "Purāṇas are supplementary explanations of the Vedas intended for different types of men. All men are not equal. There are men who are conducted by the mode of goodness, others who are under the mode of passion and others who are under the mode of ignorance. The Purāṇas are so divided that any class of men can take advantage of them and gradually regain their lost position and get out of the hard struggle for existence." 
The Mahapuranas are frequently classified according the three aspects of the divine Trimurti 
Vaiṣṇava Puranas:Vishnu PuranaBhagavata PuranaNāradeya PuranaGaruda PuranaPadma PuranaVaraha PuranaVāmana PuranaKūrma PuranaMatsya PuranaKalki Purana
Brāhma Puranas:Brahma PuranaBrahmānda PuranaBrahma Vaivarta PuranaMārkandeya PuranaBhavishya Purana,
Śaiva Puranas:Shiva PuranaLinga PuranaSkanda PuranaAgni PuranaVāyu Purana
According to the Padma Purana,  the texts may be classified in accordance with the three gunas or qualitiestruthpassion, and indifference:
Sattva ("truth; purity")Vishnu PuranaBhagavata PuranaNaradeya PuranaGaruda PuranaPadma PuranaVaraha Purana
Rajas ("dimness; passion")Brahmanda PuranaBrahma Vaivarta PuranaMarkandeya PuranaBhavishya PuranaVamana PuranaBrahma Purana
Tamas ("darkness; ignorance")Matsya PuranaKurma puranaLinga PuranaShiva PuranaSkanda PuranaAgni Purana
The Upapurāṇas are lesser or ancillary texts: these are sometimes also said to be eighteen in number, with still less agreement as to the canonical titles. Few have been critically edited. They include: Sanat-kumara, Narasimha, Brihan-naradiya, Siva-rahasya, Durvasa, Kapila, Vamana, Bhargava, Varuna, KalikaSamba, Nandi, Surya, Parasara, Vasishtha, Devi-Bhagavata, Ganesha,Mudgala, and Hamsa. 
The Ganesha and Mudgala Puranas are devoted to Ganesha. The Devi-Bhagavata Purana, which extols the goddess Durga, has become (along with the Devi Mahatmya of the Mārkandeya Purana) a basic text for Devi worshipers. 
There are many others all over the Indian subcontinent. 
This corpus of texts tells of the origins and traditions of particular Tamil Shiva temples or shrines. There are numerous Sthala Puranas, most written in vernaculars, some with Sanskrit versions as well. The 275 Shiva Sthalams of the continent have puranas for each, famously glorified in the Tamil literature Tevaram. Some appear in Sanskrit versions in the Mahapuranas or Upapuranas. Some Tamil Sthala Puranas have been researched by David Dean Shulman. 
These Puranas deal with a caste's origin myth, stories, and legends (the word kula means "family" or "tribe" in Sanskrit). They are important sources for caste identity though usually contested by rival castes. This subgenre is usually in the vernacular and may at times remain oral. These have been little researched, though they are documented in the caste section of the BritishCensus of India Report and the various Gazetteers. 
Jain Puranas deal with Jain myths, history and legends and form a major part of early Kannada literature. The best known is the Mahapurana of Acharya Jinasena. The Buddhist scriptures have no mention of puranas. But the Tibetan and Nepalese Buddhist revere nine works as puranas which are styled as Navadharmas (nine dharmas). The so called “nine dharmas” are no canon of any sect, but a series of books which have been composed at different periods and belong to different persuasions. These nine works are: Ashtasahasrika PrajnaparamitaGandavyuha,SamadhirajaLankavataraTathagataguhyakaSaddharmapundarikaLalitavistaraSuvarnaprabhasa and Dashabhumishvara. All these scriptures are also designated Vaipulyasutras. Among other works, Swayambhu Purana narrates the mythological history of Nepal and describes Buddhist pilgrimage sites inside the Kathmandu Valley.