Thalassery  ( Malayalamതലശ്ശേരി), also known as Tellicherry, is a city on theMalabar Coast of KeralaIndia. This is the second largest city of North Malabar in terms of population. The name Tellicherry is the anglicized form of Thalassery. Thalassery municipality has a population just less than 100,000.  Established in 1866, it is the second oldest municipality in the state. Possessing an area of 23.98 km2, Thalassery is a town strategically located on the western coast of Kannur district on the Malabar Coast of Kerala. It is 22 km from the district headquarters at Kannur. The town is situated between 11°44’N latitude and 75°26’E longitude, at an altitude ranging between 2.5m above the mean sea-level in the low-lying areas, to 30m above the mean sea-level in the higher regions.

British Influence


The British established their presence in Kerala in 1682, when they obtained permission from the Vadakkilamkur Prince of Kolattunad to settle at Thalassery. In the following years, the British presence in the state of Kerala strengthened. During this period, there were many organised revolts held by the natives of the region against the empire. Among them was the revolt of 1704, organised by natives of Thalassery; this revolt was quickly crushed by the British forces due to its localised, non-nationalistic nature.
Due to its coastal location, the town of Thalassery was a major commercial centre during the British rule of India. During the British rule, the Malayalam name Thalassery was anglicised into Tellichery.
The British built a seaport in Thalassery through which a variety of spices such as pepper and cardamom were exported. (Thalassery pepper, ground from locally grown pungent black peppercorns, is much sought after by chefs around the world). In 1708, the British builtThalassery Fort by the sea to protect and control the spice trade from the town. A ship wreckage of these merchant caravans is visible near the shore of Thalassery For the ship wrecked in 1806 see Tellicherry (ship)
The square fort, with its massive walls, secret tunnels to the sea, and huge, intricately carved doors, is an imposing structure. The fort, once the nucleus of Thalassery's development, is now an historical monument. In 1781, this fort was attacked unsuccessfully by the ruler and military commander of MysoreHyder Ali.
The British also established the district judicial court in Thalassery. During the British rule, jurisdiction of Thalassery Court extended up to Mysore.
One of the popular tourist spots in the town, Overbury's Folly, was built by E. N. Overbury a local British judge in the 1870s.

Thalassery is in Kannur district. The palm-fringed terrain of Thalassery has a scenic coastline and features four rivers, canals and hills with orange-hued rock. One of the four rivers is the Mahé River (Mayyazhi river). During the British Raj, the Mahé River was nicknamed the English Channel, because it separated British-ruled Thalassery from French-ruled MahéMuzhappilangad, a 5 km long Drive in beach in fact it's the only Drive in beach in Asia, is located within 6 km of the city centre.
Thalassery experiences a Tropical wet and dry climate under the Köppen climate classification. The wet season starts in June as the South-west monsoon first hits the coastal Kerala and continues until the end of September. A brief pre-monsoon Mango showers occurs sometime during April. Precipitation from theNorth-East Monsoon sets in during the second half of October through November.

 As of 2001 India census, Thalassery has a population of 99,386, making it the 8th largest city of Kerala in terms of population. Males constitute 47% of the population and females 53%. Thalassery has an average literacy rate of 86%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 86%, and female literacy is 86%. In Thalassery, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. The Thalassery urban agglomeration is considered as consisting of the Thalassery municipality and panchayaths of EranholiKadirurDharmadam,MuzhappilangadPinarayi and New Mahe with a present population of around 200,000.
Thalassery Assembly Constituency
The Thalassery assembly constituency consists of Thalassery Municipality and four neighboring Panchayats namely EranholiKadirurNew Mahe and ChokliDharmadam has been excluded from Thalassery recently, becoming a separate constituency.

Thalassery is known as the political and cultural capital of Malabar. Its the centre of progressive political and literary movements. In the colonial era itself Thalassery was the centre of learning in north Kerala. The first Malayalam newspapers, novels and short stories in Malayalam were born here. Earlier, the well known romantic poem in Malayalam, "Veenapoovu" (Fallen Flower) of Kumaran Asan was published from Thalassery. It's also the birthplace of the Communist movement in Kerala. Thalassery has a composite cosmopolitan culture. Rajya Samacharam, the first Malayalam newspaper, was published from Thalassery. 
Thalassery is at times referred to as the city of 3 C's, namelyCricket (where Indians first played cricket), Cakes and Circuses. 
Thalassery is considered to be the birthplace of the Indian Circus.  Keeleri Kunhikannan, born in the city,  is known as "the father of Kerala Circus".  Circus artists and coaches from Thalassery are very much in demand.  India's premier Circus Academy was inaugurated in Thalassery. 
Older houses in Thalassery have traditional Kerala architecture, usually large houses with wide verandas and solid wooden doors. Each house invariably has coconut trees, jackfruit, and perhaps papaya, and/or mango trees. The many idyllic suburbs are well defined by the rivers and canals that flow past.
Since long ago Thalassery residents, like other Keralites, have gone abroad, or all over India, in search of work, and to seek their fortunes. It is quite common to find one or more persons from each household living overseas or in other states. This has led to a somewhat dependent money-order economy. It is a matter of concern for the residents on how to diversify and have a self-sustainable and independent local economy. Thalassery is also famous for its cuisine, the Thalassery biryani is famous for its distinguishing taste. The influence of Arabian culture is evident in Thalassery dishes.
Heritage City
The Government of Kerala declared Thalassery a heritage city. A Rs.200 crore project for Thalassery Heritage Tourism Circuit has been announced by the Department of Tourism, Govt.of Kerala. With heritage conservation as the main aim, the new circuit would cover the heritage sites such as the Thalassery Fort, the Sree Rama Temple at Thiruvangad, St. John's Anglican Church, Arakkal Kettu, Jagannatha Temple, Thalassery Pier, Ezhimala Fort, Madayi and Neeliyar Fort, the Annapoorna Temple, Thrichambaram Temple, Sree Rajarajeswari Temple at Thalipparambu, Kanjirangad Temple, Thrikkaikkunnam Temple, Soorya Narayana Temple, Perlasserry Temple, Makreri Temple, Thiruvattoor Temple, Nadal Oorparassikkavu, Thrikkaikunnu Temple, Dharmadam Andaloorkkavu, Thodeekkulam Temple, various mosques in the Arakkal area and the Kakkulangara Mosque.
The project also includes the preservation of the residence of Herman Gundert, the home of renowned communist leader Late A.K. Gopalan at Perlasserry, the historical monuments in Chirackal area and the handloom village at Azhikode. A museum of traditional arts in Thalassery is also envisaged in the project. 

Religious Places

Sree Jagannath Temple
Sree Gnanodayayogam, the prominent social organisation of North Malabar and the governing body of Sree Jagannath Temple, Thalassery, was consecrated in 1908 by his Holiness Sree Narayana Guru, in light of centennial celebrations. Sree Varadur Kunhi Kannan visited Guru Dev in December 1904 and suggested that Thiyya Community should have a Temple at Thalassery. Sree Narayana Guru Dev allowed Varadur to invite Kumaran Asan as his representative, and to convene meetings with citizens to ascertain the feasibility of a Temple for the community. Kumaran Asan, who was residing in Bangalore, accepted the invitation, and on his arrival the first meeting was convened at ‘Parambath House’ of Sree Cheruvari Shirastadar on 9 July 1905.The temple is open to people of all religion. (A board on the road leading to the temple, however, reads "Muslims not allowed".)
Sree Andaloor Kavu
Andaloor kavu is well known for the variety of theyyams, the ancient ritual of North-Kerala. It is believed to be the early Buddhist shrine in Kerala. During the festival season the entire Dharmadam village accepts vegetarian diet, they purchase new utensils, clothes and paint their homes. Everyone will be accepted as guests at homes in Dharmadam during the temple feast season, which is also the festival of the village. The guests will be cordially treated with rice flakes and plantains. Villoppikkal (presentation of arrow), meyyalu koodal, kuluthattal etc. are some the rituals performed by the men of the village. 
Odathil Palli
In the heart of Thalassery stands the 200-year-old Odathil Palli and the Garden Mosque. The site of the Odathil Palli used to be a sugarcane garden of the Dutch. It changed hands to the British-owned East India Company. Odathil Palli is a destination that tourists and travelers come to see. The highlights of Odathil Palli are that it has the typical Kerala architecture, and it is in the heart of Tellicherry. The crown on the roof is made of gold. The mosque is still in use for worship today.

Srirangapatinam ,Lord Wellesley

The Treaty of Seringapatam(also called Srirangapatinam), signed 19 March 1792, ended the Third Anglo-Mysore War. Its signatories included Lord Cornwallison behalf of the British East India Company, representatives of the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Mahratta Empire, and Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore.
The war broke out in late 1789 when Tipu Sultan, the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, attacked Travancore, an ally of the British East India Company. After a little over two years of fighting, forces of the company led by Lord Charles, 2nd Earl Cornwallis, along with allied forces from the Maratha Empire and Hyderabadlaid siege in February 1792 to Mysore's capital, Seringapatam(also called Srirangapatinam).[1] Rather than attempting to storm the works at great cost to all sides, Cornwallis entered into negotiations with Tipu to end the conflict. The resulting treaty was signed on 19 March.
Cornwallis had hoped to use the treaty as a wide-ranging peace settlement that would, in addition to reducing or removing the threat of Mysore, prevent conflict between Hyderabad and the Marathas. The Marathas had, however, resisted inclusion of such language.
Under the terms of the treaty, Mysore ceded about one half of its territories to the other signatories. The Peshwa acquired territory up to the Tungabhadra River, the Nizam was awarded land from the Krishna to the Penner River, and the forts of Cuddapah and Gandikota on the south bank of the Penner. The East India Company received a large portion of Mysore's Malabar Coast territories between the Kingdom of Travancore and the Kali River, and the Baramahal and Dindigul districts.  Mysore granted the rajah of Coorg his independence,  although Coorg effectively became a company dependency.

Richard Colley Wesley later Lord Wellesley, 1st Marquess WellesleyKGPCPC (Ire) (20 June 1760 – 26 September 1842), styled Viscount Wellesley from birth until 1781, was an Anglo-Irish politician and colonial administrator.

He was the eldest son of Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington, an Irish peer, and Anne, the eldest daughter ofArthur Hill-Trevor, 1st Viscount Dungannon; and brother of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. He first made his name as Governor-General of India between 1798 and 1805 and later served as Foreign Secretary in the British Cabinet and as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
His significance also lies in his being a royal ancestor, being a great-great-great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II.

Wellesley was born in 1760 in Ireland, where his family were part of the Ascendancy, the old Anglo-Irisharistocracy. He was educated at the Royal School, ArmaghHarrow School and Eton College, where he distinguished himself as a classical scholar, and at Christ Church, Oxford.                                                                          
Education and early career
In 1780, he entered the Irish House of Commons for Trim until the following year, when by his father's death he became 2nd Earl of Mornington, taking his seat in the Irish House of Lords. He was elected Grand Master of theGrand Lodge of Ireland in 1782, a post he held for the following year. 
In 1784 he joined also the British House of Commons as member for Bere Alston. Soon afterwards he was appointed a Lord of the Treasury by William Pitt the Younger.
In 1793 he became a member of the Board of Control over Indian affairs; and, although he was best known for his speeches in defence of Pitt's foreign policy, he was gaining the acquaintance with Oriental affairs which made his rule over India so effective from the moment when, in 1797, he accepted the office of Governor-General of India.
Work in India                                                                                                                         Soon after his landing, in April 1798, he learned that an alliance was being negotiated between Tipu Sultan and the French republic. Mornington resolved to anticipate the action of the enemy, and ordered preparations for war. The first step was to effect the disbandment of the French troops entertained by the Nizam of Hyderabad. 
Mornington seems to have caught Pitt's large political spirit in the period 1793 to 1797. That both had consciously formed the design of acquiring a great empire in India to compensate for the loss of the American colonies is not proved; but the rivalry with France, which in Europe placed Britain at the head of coalition after coalition against the French republic and empire, made Mornington's rule in India an epoch of enormous and rapid extension of British power. Robert Clive won and Warren Hastings consolidated the British ascendancy in India, but Mornington extended it into an empire. On the voyage outwards, he formed the design of annihilating French influence in the Deccan.
The invasion of Mysore followed in February 1799, and the campaign was brought to a swift conclusion by the capture of Seringapatam on 4 May 1799 and the killing of Tipu Sultan. In 1803, the restoration of the Peshwa proved the prelude to the Mahratta war against Sindh and the raja of Berar, in which his brother Arthur took a leading rôle. The result of these wars and of the treaties which followed them was that French influence in India was extinguished, that forty million people and ten millions of revenue were added to the British dominions, and that the powers of the Maratha and all other princes were so reduced that Britain became the true dominant authority over all India. He found the East India Company a trading body, but left it an imperial power.
He was an excellent administrator, and picked two of his talented brothers for his staff: Arthur was his military adviser, and Henry was his personal secretary. He founded Fort William College, a training centre intended for those who would be involved in governing India. In connection with this college, he established the governor-general's office, to which civilians who had shown talent at the college were transferred, in order that they might learn something of the highest statesmanship in the immediate service of their chief. A free-trader like Pitt, he endeavoured to remove some of the restrictions on the trade between Britain and India. 
Both the commercial policy of Wellesley and his educational projects brought him into hostility with the court of directors, and he more than once tendered his resignation, which, however, public necessities led him to postpone till the autumn of 1805. He reached England just in time to see Pitt before his death. He had been created a Peer of Great Britain in 1797, and in 1799 became Marquess Wellesley in the Peerage of Ireland.  He formed an enormous collection of over 2,500 painted miniatures in the Company style of Indian natural history.
Napoleonic Wars
On the fall of the coalition ministry in 1807 Wellesley was invited by George III to join the Duke of Portland's cabinet, but he declined, pending the discussion in parliament of certain charges brought against him in respect of his Indian administration. Resolutions condemning him for the abuse of power were moved in both the Lords and Commons, but defeated by large majorities.
In 1809 Wellesley was appointed ambassador to Spain. He landed at Cádiz just after the Battle of Talavera, and tried unsuccessfully to bring the Spanish government into effective co-operation with his brother, who, through the failure of his allies, had been forced to retreat into Portugal. A few months later, after the duel between George Canning and Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, and the resignation of both, Wellesley accepted the post of Foreign Secretary inSpencer Perceval's cabinet.
He held this office until February 1812, when he retired, partly from dissatisfaction at the inadequate support given to Wellington by the ministry, but also because he had become convinced that the question of Catholic emancipation could no longer be kept in the background. From early life Wellesley had, like his brother Arthur, been an advocate of Catholic emancipation, and with the claim of the Irish Catholics to justice he henceforward identified himself. On Perceval's assassination he, along with Canning, refused to join Lord Liverpool's administration, and he remained out of office till 1821, criticizing with severity the proceedings of the Congress of Vienna and the European settlement of 1814, which, while it reduced France to its ancient limits, left to the other great powers the territory that they had acquired by the Partitions of Poland and the destruction of the Republic of Venice. He was one of the peers who signed the protest against the enactment of the Corn Laws in 1815.
Ireland and later life                                                                                                    Following his wife's death in 1816, he married, on 29 October 1825, the widowed Marianne (Caton) Patterson, whose mother Mary was the daughter of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the last surviving signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence; her former sister-in-law was Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte. They had no children.
Wellesley lived together with Hyacinthe-Gabrielle Roland, an actress at the Palais Royal for many years. Her mother's husband was Pierre Roland, but she was said to be the daughter of an Irishman named Christopher Alexander Fagan. She had three sons and two daughters by Wellesley before he married her on 29 November 1794. He moved her to London, where Hyacinthe was generally miserable, as she never learned English and she was scorned by high society. Their daughter, Lady William Cavendish-Bentinck, married sequentially Sir William Abdy, 7th Baronet and Lieutenant Colonel Lord Charles Bentinck, while another daughter, Hyacinthe Mary Wellesley, married Edward Littleton, 1st Baron Hatherton. Through Lady William Cavendish-Bentinck, Wellesley is a great-great-great grandfather to Queen Elizabeth II.
In 1821 he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Catholic emancipation had now become an open question in the cabinet, and Wellesley's acceptance of the viceroyalty was believed in Ireland to herald the immediate settlement of the Catholic claims but they would remain unfulfilled. Lord Liverpool died without having grappled with the problem. Canning died; and on the assumption of office by Wellington, his brother resigned the lord-lieutenancy. He had, however, the satisfaction of seeing the Catholic claims settled in the next year by the very statesmen who had declared against them. In 1833 he resumed the office of Lord Lieutenant under Earl Grey, but the ministry soon fell, and, with one short exception, Wellesley did not take any further part in official life.
On his death, he had no successor in the marquessate, but the earldom of Mornington and minor honours devolved on his brother William, Lord Maryborough, on the failure of whose issue in 1863 they fell to the 2nd Duke of Wellington.

Province Wellesley, in the state of Penang, Malaysia; was named after Richard Wellesley. It was originally part of the state of Kedah. It was ceded to the British East India Company by the Sultan of Kedah in 1798, and has been part of the settlement and state of Penang ever since. Now it has renamed Seberang Perai in Malay language.
The Township of WellesleyOntarioCanada was named in Richard Wellesley's honour, despite the many references (i.e.WaterlooWellington County) to his brother, Arthur Wellesley in the surrounding area.
The Wellesley Islands off the north coast of QueenslandAustralia were named by Matthew Flinders in honour of Richard Wellesley. The largest island in the group is Mornington Island.
As of the summer of 2007, a portrait of Marquess Wellesley hangs in the Throne Room at Buckingham Palace.

  • Webb, Alfred (1878). " Wellesley, Richard Colley, Earl of Mornington, Marquis Wellesley". A Compendium of Irish Biography. Dublin: M. H. Gill & son. Wikisource
  • Butler, Iris. The Eldest Brother. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1973.
  • Ingram, Edward, ed. Two Views of British India: The Private Correspondence of Mr. Dundas and Lord Wellesley, 1798-1801. Bath: Adams and Dart, 1970.
  • Harrington, Jack (2010), Sir John Malcolm and the Creation of British India, New York: Palgrave Macmillan., ISBN 978-0-230-10885-1
  • Martin, Robert Montgomery, ed. The Despatches, Minutes & Correspondence of the Marquess Wellesley During His Administration in India. 5 vols. London: 1836-37.
  • Pearce, Robert Rouiere. Memoirs and Correspondence of the Most Noble Richard Marquess Wellesley. 3 vols. London: 1846.
  • Renick, M.S. Lord Wellesley and the Indian States. Agra: Arvind Vivek Prakashan, 1987.
  • Roberts, P.E. India Under Wellesley. London: George Bell & Sons, 1929.
  • The Wellesley Papers: The Life and Correspondence of Richard Colley Wellesley. 2 vols. London: Herbert Jenkins, 1914.
  • Torrens, William McCullagh. The Marquess Wellesley: Architect of Empire. London: Chatto and Windus, 1880.

Kadathanadu ,Kolattunādu

Kadathanadu (BadagaraKadolkachakshiti in Sanskrit) was a former Nair Hindu feudatory (of Kolathunad) city-state in present day Kerala stateSouth India, on the Malabar Coast famed for its anthology of heroic songs, folklores and ballads (known as Vadakkan Pattukal) and for Kalarippayattu.
Geographical location
Geographically, Kadathanadu is part of North Malabar and situated to the south of Thalassery and north of Koyilandy by the side of historical Kotakkal river. The area around 6 km from Vatakara is known as Kadathanadu. The place is now part of Puduppanam in vatakara. (please refer Vatakara and Memunda)
Kadathanadu, apart from its cultural richness is also bestowed with the presence of a famous temple, the Lokanarkavu.
The erstwhile princely state of Kadathanadu was ruled by Rajas of Kadathanadu belonging to the Nambiar caste who were feudatories to the Kolathiri. Around 1750, the ruler of Kadathanadu had adopted the title of Raja, with the explicit consent of the Kolathiri. Harivihar is the 150-year-old residence of the Kadathanaduroyal family. Folklore has it that the sons of the Kadathanadu rulers were sent to Calicut to be educated in institutions set up by the Zamorin of Calicut, and hence a city house was built for the young princes.
During Malayalam Era 965 corresponding to 1789-90, Tipu Sultan crossed over to Malabar with his army. A small army of 2000 Nairs of Kadathanadu resisted the invasion of the huge army of Tipu Sultan from a fortress in Kuttipuram for a few weeks. They were reduced to starvation and death.

Kolattunādu (Kola Swarupam, as Kingdom of Cannanore in foreign accounts, Chirakkal (Chericul) in later times) was one of the three most powerful feudal kingdoms on the Malabar Coast during the arrivalPortuguese Armadas to India, the others being Zamorin's Calicut and Quilon. Kolattunādu had its capital atEzhimalai and was ruled by Kolattiri Royal Family and roughly comprised the whole northern districts ofKerala state and parts of Karnataka in India. Traditionally, Kolattunādu is described as the land lying betweenPerumba river in the north and Putupattanam river in the south. 
The ruling house of Kolathunādu, which was known as Kolattunau, was one of the major political powers which sprang up in Kerala after the disappearance of the Cheras of Mahodayapuram by the twelfth century AD. Kolattiris traces their ancestry back to the ancient Mushika kingdom (Ezhimalai kingdom, Eli-nadu) of the Tamil Sangam Age. After king Nannan of Mushika dynasty was killed in a battle against the Cheras, the history of the dynasty is obscure. However, it is generally agreed among the scholars that Kolattiris are the descendents of king Nannan, and later literary works point towards kings such as Vikramaraman, Jayamani, Valabhan and Srikandan from Mushika dynasty. Kolathunad was the northernmost province of the Later Chera kingdom and had considerable autonomy during 12th century.
Though the rulers of this house (popularly known as Kolattiris) were generally credited with a superior political authority over the geographical zone lying between the kingdoms of Canara and Zamorin's Calicut, their political influence was more or less confined to Kolattunādu.  Ezhimalai, the ancient capital of the kingdom, was one of the most important trading centres on Malabar along with Quilon and Calicut, and has found mention in the writings of Ibn BattutaMarco Polo and Wang Ta-Yuan and several other explorers. In the course of time, their territories were divided into a number of petty vassal principalities, chief among them Cannanore and Laccadives, Cotiote and Wynad, Cartinad (Badagara), Irvenaad, and Randaterra. The so-called "Five Friendly Northern Rulers" (Nilesvaram, Kumbla, Vitalh, Bangor, and Chowtwara) were contiguous to Kolattnad, north of the Kavvayi river. They engaged in frequent rivalry with their powerful neighbors in the south, the Zamorins of Calicut-a permanent feature of Kerala history.
When Portuguese explores under Pedro Álvares Cabral arrived in India, Kolattiris warmly welcomed them in Cannanore (1501) and allowed the construction of a strategic fort in Kolattunadu, seeking fortunes against the Zamorins. Later, Kolathiri gave up the Portuguese, and helped the Dutch, and then followed the English East India Company.
In spite of its fluctuating political fortunes throughout its existence, the Kola Swarupam was considered as one of the most prominent political houses in Kerala until the British occupation of the region by the end of the eighteenth century. At least from the second half of the fifteenth century, Cannanore occupied the prime position of being the leading port town of Kolathunādu and, consequently, it was the core area of socio-economic and political dynamics of the region.
During the Mysore occupation of Malabar, the Kolattiris found refuge in Travancore, and the territories were taken over by the British after the Anglo-Mysore Wars. Kingdom of Chirakkal was taken over by Mysore between 1766 and 1773. The ruler then came under the English East India Company's protection until 1777, when he made his peace with Hyder Ali who allowed him to rule in Chirakkal upon payment of tribute. He again changed sides in 1790 and was restored by the English East India Company in 1792. By the settlement of that year,he was allowed to retain his rights and authority, subject to the control of the Company. 1798-99, the Company assumed the management and granted to the Kolattiri a political allowance known as Malikhana, fixed at one fifth of the then ascertained revenue of the territory.
Cherusseri Namboothiri (c. 1375-1475 AD), the author Krshna Gatha, a landmark in the development of Malayalam literature, lived in the court of Udayavarman Kolattiri.
The political lordship of the original Kingdom of Kolattiri was partitioned along various matrilinial-divisions of the Kolattiri family and had rulers of the respective parts or Kũrvāzhcha (part-dominions) namely Kolattiri, Tekkālankũr, Vadakkālankũr, Naalāmkũr, and Anjāmkũr. The administration of Kolattunādu was divided into various segments of authority each of which performed functions similar to those of the superior powers but on a smaller scale. 
The administration was conducted through chiefs-in-tenant under the Kolattiri. This included dignitaries called "nāduvazhis", "desavazhis" and "mukhyastans". The nāduvazhis, who were heads of "nādus" or districts headed Nair militias of 500 -20,000. Below the nāduvazhis in the administrative hierarchy were desavazhis who were heads of hamlets called "desams". These were divisions of nādus. Desavazhis headed Nair militias ranging from 100 to 500 men. Below the desavazhis were other local potentates called mukhyastans. However, as in any feudal society, the Kolattiris were unable to centralize their state and the inability of the Kolattiris to monopolize the use of force in the realm on account of their weak economic position meant that the outward appearance of regal authority remained more or less nominal.
Decentralized realm
There appears to have been a significant discrepancy between the ideal type of polity presented in Brahmanical texts such as the Keralolpathi, where the Kolathiri Rājā is presented as the custodian of legitimized political power, and the actual working of power relations in the region. It appears that the Kolathiris never exercised a monopoly of authority in the realm. Authority was a decentralized, shared, and pluralistic entity. The kingly status attributed to the Kolathiris remained more or less a nominal one. The Kolathiris had to sustain their political dignity within the constraints set by the limits of their economic resource base as the geographical features of Kolathunādu did not guarantee a large-scale agricultural surplus. Shaped by the limited agrarian economy in Kolathunādu, the possibility of a centralized political structure to emerge was limited.  This constricted opportunity to exploit the limited agricultural surplus obviously restricted the chances of the Kolathiris to exercise considerable influence over the people of the region. Instead, there emerged a fluctuating field of powerful taravādus of Nāyars exercising control over the resources from their respective landed properties and the dependent labour-service classes. The inability of the Kolathiris to monopolize the use of force in the realm on account of their weak economic position meant that the outward appearance of regal authority remained more or less nominal.

The origin of the Ezhi Malai rulers, the Mushaka Kingdom and Kolathunad is obscure in history.
Ezhi Malai rulers
During the Sangam period, the early centuries of the Christian era, both present day Kerala and the Tamil Nadu were considered to be part of a common cultural realm and to belong to a common geographical settlement pattern, in spite of being under distinct political entities.  More specifically, Tamil anthologies of the early Christian era make no sharp cultural or social distinction between the Pandyas, the Cheras, or the Cholas, and the Velir chiefs, all operating within a common cultural and geographical milieu. Also later, the Hindu temples on the western coast were also included in the sacred geography of the Tamil Bhakti movement and were profusely praised by the Alwars and Nayanars, the main proponents of the movement, in their verses. 
In the Tamil Sangam Age, northern Malabar was under the rule of a dynasty with capital at Ezhil Malai (and with second capital at Pazhi). Ezhil Malai (Mount Deli in European accounts) and its neighboring regions werebecame dynamic centers of socio-political activities in the early centuries of the Christian era. The Ezhil Malai kingdom (Konka-nam, a part of the Puzhi-nadu) comprised practically the whole of the present Kannur, Kasaragode and Wynad districts and a portion of the Tulu country and parts of Coorg and Gudalur as well. This was the north-western most Tamil speaking area of the ancient Tamil country.
Cheras fought with the Ezhil Malai rulers for the supremacy over the area in the Sangam ages. It was during their military expansion to the north, the Chera forces came to face with the Ezhil Malai forces. Probably, the earliest Chera ruler who exercised control over some portions of Puzhinadu was "Puzhiyar-kon" Palyani Sel Kelu Kuttuvan.
Nannan of Ezhil Malai was the most celebrated ruler of this dynasty. Surviving Tamil anthologies draw a brilliant picture of Nannan and describe his engagements with ruling elites such as the Cheras.  He was more of a tribal chieftain who engaged primarily in plundering raids in the neighboring territories. However, in the beginning of the first century AD, the kingdom of Ezhil Malai rose to political prominence under Nannan with his capital at Pazhi. Nannan was a warrior king who conducted expeditions deep into the interior regions and brought the Wynad-Gudalur region and a part of Kongunadu (Salem-Coimbatore region) under his control. According Tamil poets he made several victories (including the Battle of Pazhi) over the Cheras. King Narmudi Cheral, the successor of Sel Kelu Kuttuvan, sent Chera forces under General Migili against Nannan. But, he was defeated in the Battle of Pazhi against the Ezhil Malai forces. But later, Nannan was defeated in a series of subsequent engagements. He was forcesd to flee his capital Pazhi and seek asylum in Wynad hills. The battles ended when Narmudi Cheral crushed Nannan's forces in the Battle of Vagai Perum Turai. According to Agananuru, Nannan was killed in the battle. After his death, the control of the Ezhimalai kingdom came under the Cheras.
The city of Pazhi, the later capital of the Ezhil Malai kingdom, was famous for its rich treasures. They had close trade relations with Roman sailors on Malabar Coast.
Mushaka dynasty
By the eight century the political atmosphere in southern India had changed rather dramatically as a new political culture based on settled agrarian exploitation took root in the region. As in other parts of the Indian sub-continent, Brahmanism provided the ideological support for these newly emerging regional, primarily agrarian states.
Between 9th- 12th century AD, a dynasty called "Mushaka" controlled the Chirakkal-Kasaragodu areas of northern Malabar (the Wynad-Tellichery area was part of the Second Chera Kingdom). Mushakas were probably the descendants of the ancient royal family of Nannan of Ezhi Malai and were perhaps a vassal of the Cheras. Some scholars have expressed the view that Mushakas were not under of the Cheras, since the ruler of Mushaka does not figure along the rulers of Eralnadu and Valluvanadu as a signatory in the famous Terisappalli and Jewish Copper Plates. Up to 11th century, the Mushaka kings followed the patrilineal system of succession and that thereafter they gradually switched over to the matrilineal system.
A Sankrit poem (called Mushika Vamsa) written Atula describes a number of Mushaka kings such as Vikrama Rama, Jayamani, Vallabha II and Srikantha. Atula was the court poet of King Srikantha who ruled towards the end of 11th century AD.
King Vikrama Rama is said to have saved the famous Buddhist vihara of Sri Mulavasa from a terrible sea erosion on the Malabar Coast. Prince Vallabha II was despatched by King Jayamani to assist the Chera forces during the invasion of the Chola ruler Kulottunga. However, before he could join with the Chera army, he heard the death of his father and he returned to the capital to prevent the usurpation of the Mushaka throne by his enemies. On reaching the capital, he defeated his rivals and ascended the throne. Vallabha II also founded the port of Marahi (Madayi) at the mouth of Killa river and port of Valabha Pattanam (Valiaptam). The city of Valabha Pattanam was protected with lofty towers and high walls. He also annexed Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi islands of Arabian sea. Srikantha (also known as Raja Dharma), his younger brother, succeeded Vallabha II.
According to the Mushika Vamsa, Rama Ghata Mushaka established the lineage of Kola Swarupam. Whatever may have been the authority for the Mushika Vamsa, inscriptional evidence from at least the 8th century AD seems to support the existence of the Mushaka dynasty. In addition, an inscription dating to 929 AD mentions about one Vikrama Rama identifiable with the ruler Vikrama Rama who appears in the Mushika Vamsa .Another inscription from 10th century AD mentions a cheftain, Udaya Varma, who bore the title "Rama Ghata Muvar"— an epithet used by the Mushaka kings. An inscription from the Tiruvattur temple mentions an Eraman Chemani (Rama Jayamani) who is identifiable with the king who appears as the 109th ruler in the Mushika Vamsa. 
They intermarried very frequently with the Cheras, the Pandyas and the Cholas, and also might have given rise to the royalties of the Lakshadweep and theMaldives.  The Mushaka family has found mention in surviving mythical Indian texts like the Vishnu Purana  and also in Greek accounts like that ofStrabo. 
Rise of Kolathunadu (Cannanore)
The Kolathiris are praised as Vadakkan Perumals ("Kings of the North") by the famous "Keralolpathi".
 Foreign accounts also corroborate the distinct identity of Kolathunadu. Marco Polo, who visited Malabar coast in the 12thcentury AD, noticed the independent status of the king of this region.  The 14th century narrative of Ibn Battuta refers to the ruler of this region as residing at a city called Balia Patanam.  This offers a clue that by this time, the capital of Kolathunadu had shifted from Ezhil Malai to Balia Patanam, a town located south of Ezhil Malai. In the 16th century AD, a Portuguese official Duarte Barbosa also mentions Balia Patanam ("Balia Patam" in European records) as the residence of the king of Cannanore. 
The socio-cultural uniqueness of the state called Kolathunadu became more distinctive only after the disappearance of the Second Cheras by the early 12th century AD. But by 14th century, the Kolathiris were vassals of Hoysala Empire. Before the arrival the Portuguese, Calicut fought a number of wars against Cannanore (Kolathunad). A prince of the Kolattiri royal family was stationed at Pantalayini Kollam as southern Viceroy. Pantalayini Kollam was an important port on the Malabar Coast. During his conquests, the Zamorin occupied Pantalayini Kollam as a preliminary advance to Cannanore. Kolattri immediately sent ambassadors to submit to whatever terms Calicut might dictate. Cannanore officially transferred the regions already occupied to Calicut and certain Hindu temple rights.
Events leading to British colonization
Important Events between 1689-1801 leading to British colonization of Kolathunādu. 
1689Kolattiri Rājā and his Prince Regent (Vadakkālankũr), to protect the latter from his adversary Kurangoth nāyar, sent an ultimatum to the then British interlopers in Malabar to let them know that they could continue to trade in north Malabar only if they agreed to build a factory in the area.
1708: Completion of Thalassery fort.
1722 : The French claim for a factory was staked at Māhe to protect their interest in Malabar. They started to wage a war against the Vāzhunor of Badagara with a view to establishing a factory in Māhe which was only three miles south of Thalassery. Kolattiri through a royal writing granted to the East India Company ’all the trades and farms’ within his ’territory from Canharotte down the Pudupatnam river’, excluding the areas where concessions were held by the Dutch who were based at Kannũr. The British were also authorized to ’punish, prevent and driveaway’ ’any other stranger’ who interfered with their concessions.
1725French established factory at Māhe by making a deal with Vāzhunor.
1720s Ali Raja of Arackal Raja attacked the then Prince Regent of Kolathunād, Cunhi Homo and he approaches the British for succour in return for the privileges and factory granted to them by his uncle the Kolathiri.
August 1727 : Chief of Thalassery informs the Prince Regent that it is the policy of the Bombay Presidency to supply local potentates with ammunition to wage wars at their own expense.
1728 Chief of Thalassery, Adams, was recalled to Bombay and Prince regent asks for military assistance from Dutch at Cochin. The Dutch demanded the port ofDharmapatanam in return. The East India Company fearing Dutch influence supplied Kolathunād with 20,000 fanams of military stores and Ali Rājā was silenced. The British in return were given exclusive permission over other Europeans to buy spices in Kolathunādu by Prince Udaya Varman.
1732-34Kanarese invaded North Malabar in 1732 at the invitation of the Arackal Raja. Under the command of Gopalaji, 30,000 strong Kanarese soldiers, easily overran Cunhi Homo’s forts in northern Kolathunād. Early in 1734 the Kanarese soldiers captured Kudali and Dharmapatanam
1736: Kanarese army was driven out of the whole of North with assistance from the British but the Prince Regent incurs a huge debt with the factors at Tellichery as a result 1737: Nayaks of Bednur plan another attack on Kolathunādu. Prince Cunhi Homo agreed to sign a peace treaty with the Kanarese which fixed the northern border of Kolathunād on the Madday. The factors of Tellicherry also signed their own treaty with the Nayak of Bedanur which guaranteed the integrity of British trading concessions in Malabar in the event of future conflicts between the Kanarese and the rulers of Kolathunād.
1739-42 Prince Ockoo, a French supported adversary of the Prince regent and his followers were killed by the factors of Tellichery.
1741 Prince regent asked his vassals, the Achanmārs of Randuthara to contribute 30,000 fanams towards defraying state debt. The Achanmārs refused. Prince Regent’s threatened to assume the collection of tribute in Randuthara unless the Achanmārs agreed. the British arranged to pay the Prince Regent the sum of 30,000 fanams on behalf of the Achanmārs in exchange for the land revenue collection of Randuthara. Thus The debt trap was an important instrument which the British used to secure the monopoly of trade in Malabar.
1745: The direct relations which the factors of Tellicherry were cultivating with the vassals of Kolathunād, however, tended to alienate the Kolattiri. The Prince Regent of Kolathunād accused the factors of Tellicherry of interfering ’too much in the government of his country’.
1746: Death of Prince Udaya Varman. The disintegration of the Kolathiri's dominion had started and the English fanned dissensions in the royal family. The British started taking control of more and more area by purchasing land through consorts of the royal family.
October 1747: Minor war between Kolathiri and factors at Tellichery who using Prince Raman Unithiri ’chastized’ ’ant-British ministers’ in the samastanom. On succession due to Prince Kunhi Homos death, Prince Cunhi Raman tried to ambition to reaffirm his authority upon his Vassals to the East India Company concern. Having consolidated his authority, Prince Cunhi Raman embarked on a policy of centralizing the administration of Kolathunād so as to acquire more power over his vassals. He expressed the desire to collect the land revenue of Randuthara because he felt that the Achanmār no longer obeyed him.
1749Prince cunhi Raman threatened to appoint his own sons to administer the taluks of Iruvalinad and Kadattanad. In the same year, however, the Boyanore cut the last links of Vassalage with the Kolathunād palace and declared himself Rājā of Kadattanad. The Nambiārs of Iruvalinād threatened to follow suit. The Achanmār of Randuthara appealed to the British for more protection. Kolathunād was being dismembered. The Kolattiri and his Prince Regent were being forced to withdraw to Kolathunād ’proper’ and so restrict their authority to what was to become the taluk of Chirakkal.
April 1751: Following the Boyanore’s assumption of the title of Rājā, Prince Cunhi Raman declared war on Kadattanad, Iruvalinad where the East India Companyhad acquired the monopoly of buying pepper . Following many discussions, the factors managed to convince the Kolattiri (the Senior Rājā of Kolathunād) to dismiss Prince Kunhi Raman and appointed Ambu Tamban as Prince Regent in the presence of Thomas Derryl of the East India Company at Thalassery .
October 1751: Prince Cunhi Raman allowed the French to fortify Mount Delli so as to disrupt the British rice trade between Mangalore and Tellicherry.
January 1752: The Rājā of Cotiote mediated for a settlement between Tellicherry and Kolathunād.
1756: Death of Prince Cunhi Raman and succession by Prince Rama Varma
1760: Death of Prince Rama Varma
August 1760Unanamen Tamban (new Prince Regent) had Siben Putteiah, the leader of the pro-British faction in the Kolathunād Raj, blinded.

Prince of Chirakkal took over the administration of Kolathunād.
1761Kolattiri dismisses the Prince Regent and took charge of the Kolathunād Raj directly and granted the British the right to collect all the custom duties of North Malabar on behalf of the samastanom.
1765: Prince of Chirakkal recognized the dominant position of Tellicherry in the taluk of Randuthara by ceding the area to the East India Company.
Feb 1766Hyder Ali along with a formidable force is welcomed into Kerala by the Ali Rājā of Kannũr. The Mysorean army guided by Ali Rājā and his brother seize the palace of the Rājā of Kolathiri at Chirakkal. The Rājā and his family flee south to take refuge at the English trading station in Thalassery. He appointed Ali Rājā as his Naval Chief (High Admiral) and the Rājā 's brother Sheik Ali as Chief of Port Authority (Intendant of Marine).
1773: Hyder Ali invaded Malabar for a second time in 1773 on the pretext that the Rajas of Malabar had not paid him tribute as agreed in 1768. 
Feb 1789Tipu Sultan enters Malabar for the second time as all the Rājā and Chieftains of North Malabar had revolted and declared their independence from Mysore. He devastated Kadathanād and marries off his son (Abdul Khalic) to the daughter of the Arackal Bibi of Kannũr. One of the princes of the Kolathiri family was killed by Tippu´s soldiers during his escape and his dead body was dragged by elephants through Tippu's camp and it was subsequently hung up on a tree along with seventeen of his followers who had been captured alive.
May 1790: Tipu leaves Malabar never to return

: Malabar was made a part of the Madras Presidency
March 1792: Malabar was formally ceded to the British. The British entered into agreements with the Rājā ofChirakkalKottayam and Kadathanād and all of them acknowledged the full sovereignty of the Company over their respective territories. The British Government divided the province of Malabar into two administrative divisions - theSouthern and Southern, presided over by a superintendent each at Thalassery and Cherpulasseri, under the general control of the supervisor and chief magistrate of the province of Malabar who had his headquarters at Kozhikode.
1801: Death of the last Kolathiri Rājā who ceded all his dominions to the British (was commonly known as the firstRājā of Chirakkal). Major Macleod took charge as the first principal collector of Malabar on October 1, 1801.
Kolathunād remained part of Malabar District (an administrative district of British India under Madras presidency till 1947 and later part of India's Madras State till 1956. On November 1, 1956, the state of Kerala was formed by theStates Reorganisation Act merging the Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks, which were merged with Tamil Nadu, and the taluk of KasargodSouth Kanaramerged with Karnataka.
Constitution of the Kolathiri family
By the seventeenth century, the Kolaswarũpam had to share its political authority with two other lineages in north Kerala. The Nileswaram (Alladam) Swarũpam and the Arackal Swarũpam claimed independent political identity. Moreover, political power within the Kolaswarũpam was also disseminated into different kovilakams. In the Keralolpathi there are four kovilakams sharing the political authority of the Kolaswarupam namely: Talora Kovilakam; Arathil Kovilakam; Muttathil Kovilakam; and Karipathu Kovilakam.[23] According to the Keralolpathi Kolathunādu tradition, the Karipathu Kovilakam claimed some sort of superiority over the others. However, it was the Palli Kovilakam and the Udayamangalam Kovilakam, as apparent from the Dutch records, which dominated the political scene of Kolathunadu Both these kovilakams had again branched into various kovilakams, thereby, creating a network of political houses within the Kolaswarupam.
The original kingdom of Kolathiri was partitioned along 5 matrilinial-divisions of the Kolathiri family and had rulers of the respective parts/ Kũr-Vāzhcha (part-dominions) namely Kolattiri, Tekkālankũr, Vadakkālankũr, Naalāmkũr, Anjāmkũr.
The matrilinial divisions of the Kolathiri family (Kovilakams)
ChengaPrāyikkara at Māvelikkara, Ennakkāt' (Further divided into Ennakkāt and Māvelikkara)
Tevanam Kotta
ThekumkureKolath kovilakam
During the period of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan from 1766 to 1792 multiple military invasions, plunder and systematic forcible conversions were performed in North and South Malabar alike. Fearing forcible conversion, a significantly large section (Chieftains and Brahmins) of Malabar chose to take refuge in the erstwhile Kingdom of Travancore as Travancore had an alliance (Treaty of Mangalore) with the English Company according to which "an aggression against Travancore would be viewed as equivalent to declaration of war against the English". Thus at various time points between 1766 to 1792 all female members and many male members of Kolathiri family had taken refuge in southern kerala. On the restoration of peace in Malabar, while the family went back, three sisters stayed back in Travancore at Mavelikkara. Dissensions resulted in one of them moving to Ennakkad while another settled at Prayikkara. Thus three matrilinial branches of the Kolathiri family settled in Travancore and established the royal houses of Mavelikkara, Ennakkat and Prayikkara.
The Kolathiri family has been a constant source for providing heirs to the Travancore Royal Family by permiiting their members to be adopted.The first adoption took place around 1315 whereby the two princesses of the Kolathiri family were installed as Senior and Junior Rāni s of Attingal, with the titles of Āttingal Mootha Thampurān and Āttingal Elaya Thampurān respectively. Adoptions into the Travancore Royal Family followed in 1684, 1688, 1718, 1748 and 1788 until the 19th century. The celebrated Mārthanda Varma the Great was a result of the 1688 adoption and his successor Dharmarājā who fought and defeated Tipu Sultan of Mysore was an offspring of the 1718 adoption. The weak Balarama Varma who ruled after Dharmarājā in the early 19th century belonged to the 1748 line. The famous Maharanis Gowri Lakshmi Bayi and Gowri Parvathi Bayi belonged to the 1788 line as did the Maharajahs Swāthi ThirunālUthram ThirunālĀyilyam ThirunālVisākham Thirunāl and Moolam Thirunāl.
Supersession of the title Kolathiri Rājā
Earlier members of both Udayamangalam and Palli divisions were eligible to assume the title of Kolathiri Rājā based on their seniority in age. The invasion of the domains of Kolathiri family by Rājā of Bednũr / Ikkeri and subsequent settlement between Kolathiri and the invader in AD 1736-37 led to considerable change within the family of Kolathiris .The Udayamangalam branch was shut out from assuming the title Rājā and the title of Kolathiri fell into disuse. The ruling family (Palli division) monopolized the right of succession as Rāja, leading to the supersession of the ancient title of Kolathiri Rājā to the Chirakkal Raja. 
Ascension to Kshatriyahood
In 1617 A.D Kolathiri Rāja, Udayavarman, wished to further promote himself to full recognition by performing Hiranya-garbhā, which the Nambũdiris refused. As he attempted to force the Nambũdiri Brahmins of Taliparamba (Perumchellũr) to perform this ritual for him, the Nambũdiri Brahmins refused him by stating:
‘Kolathiri had no right to ask them to perform a sacrifice since in the jurisdiction of Perumtrikkovilappan (the deity of the Rajarajeswara temple of Perumchellũr, Taliparamba) the order of any king would not be valid’ (The epithet of the deity rajarajeswara or king of the kings blatantly indicates the royal status assumed by the deity). 
Consequently Udayavarman brought 237 Brahmin families (Sāgara Dwijas) from Gokarnam and settled them in five Desams. (Cheruthāzham, Kunniriyam, Arathil, Kulappuram and Vararuchimangalam of Perinchelloor Grāmam) . The latter adopted Nambũdiri customs and performed Hiranya-garbhā and conferred Kshatriyahood on the former. Later, on the request of Rājā of Travancore, 185 of these Sāgara dwijans families were sent to Thiruvalla. (Thiruvalladesi Embraanthiris). 
Calendar system
The version of Kolla-Varsham or Kolla-varsham practiced in central/south Kerala excepting North Malabar (Kolathunadu) began on August 25 825 A. D and the year commences with Simha-raasi (Leo) and not in Mesha-raasi (Aries) as in other Indian calendars. Although there are several accounts, current, recorded and heresay about the commencement of the Kollam era, however in erstwhile North Malabar / Kolathunadu, the Kollam era is reckoned from the next month, Kanya-rasi (Virgo) (September 25) instead. This variation has two interesting accounts associated with it. 
(1) The traditional text Kerolopathi attributes the introduction of Kollam era to Shankaracharya. So if you convert the word “Aa chaa rya vaa ga bhed ya” (meaning Shankaracharya's word/law is unalterable) in to numbers in the Katapayadi notation it translates into 0 6 1 4 3 4 1 and these written backwards gives the age of the Kali yuga on the first year of the Kollam era. Kali day 1434160 would work out to be September 25, 825 A.D which corresponds to the beginning of Kollam era in Kolathunadu, i.e. the first day of the Kanya-raasi (Virgo) .
(2) The second account is that Kollam era commenced with the proclamation made at Kollam.

Royal symbols of Kolathiri
According to legend, Lord Parasurama is said to have provided Ramaghatha Mooshikan on his day of coronation (1) Naandakam Vaal (a special sword)(2) and assignied the herb Nenmeni-vaka (Mumosa lebbek) as the tree associated with the dynasty (3)and further assigned Vaakapookkula (infloresense of Mumosa lebbek) and Changalavattam Vilakku (This is a heavy bronze lamp used in temple processions and the lamp itself has an oil storage space with a spoon attached to it by chain), as the royal symbols. The Kola-swaroopam dynasty believes that it is this association of theirs with Nenmeni-vaka (Mumosa lebbek) that led to their nomenclature as Mooshikan. The Royal flag and the Royal seal of the Kolathiri family therefore was a combination of images namely : Thoni (a boat), Changalavattam Vilakku, Naandakam Vaal and Nenmeni-vaka.
Royal flag/standard (Kodikkoora or dwajam)
The imagery of the flag consisted of two Naandakam-Vaal-swords on either sides with a centrally placed Vaakapookkula-infloresense of Mumosa lebbek and five half crescents beneath.
Royal seal (Mudra)
The imagery of the seal consisted of a thoni-boat beneath, a changalavattam-lamp above it, further above a vertically placed Naandakam-vaal-sword, followed on either adjacent sides by a Vaakapookkula-infloresense each.