Pashupati &Pashupata Shaivism

Pashupati   "Lord of all animals", is an epithet of the Hindu god Shiva.  In Vedic times it was used as an epithet of Rudra.  The Rigveda has the related pashupa"protector of animals" as a name of Pushan. The name was also applied by John Marshall to a figure, probably a deity depicted as sitting among animals, on a seal discovered in the context of the Indus Valley Civilization The main temple of Nepal is Pashupatinath at Katmandu.

Pashupati seal

A seal discovered during excavation of the Mohenjodaro archaeological site in the Indus Valley (2900BC-1900BC)
 has drawn attention as a possible representation of a "yogi" or "proto-Shiva" figure.  This "Pashupati" (Lord of Animals, Sanskrit paśupati)  seal shows a seated figure, possiblyithyphallic, surrounded by animals. Some observers describe the figure as sitting in a traditional cross-legged yoga pose with its hands resting on its knees.
The discoverer of the seal, Sir John Marshall, and others have claimed that this figure is a prototype of Shiva.

Archaeologist Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, current Co-director of the Harappa Archaeological Research Project in Pakistan and Indologist Heinrich Zimmeragree that the 'Pashupati' figure shows a figure in a yoga posture. 
Gavin Flood characterizes these views as "speculative", saying that while it is not clear from the seal that the figure has three faces, is seated in a yoga posture, or even that the shape is intended to represent a human figure, it is nevertheless possible that there are echoes of Shaiva iconographic themes, such as half-moon shapes resembling the horns of a bull. ] Historian John Keay is more specifically dismissive, saying:

..there is little evidence for the currency of this myth. Rudra, a Vedic deity later identified with Shiva, is indeed referred to as pasupati because of his association with cattle; but asceticism and meditation were not Rudra's specialties, nor is he usually credited with an empathy for animals other than kine. More plausibly, it has been suggested that the Harappan figure's heavily horned headgear bespeaks a bull cult, to which numerous other representations of bulls lend substance.

Archaeologist Gregory Possehl also disagrees with the Proto-Shiva theory,  but contends that "the posture of the deity...is a form of ritual discipline, suggesting a precursor of yoga." Possehl also states that this view:

...is supported by several other yogi images in the corpus of Mature Harappan materials....These diverse images suggest that the Indus pose of ritual discipline was used in more than one way and that their buffalo god did not have exclusive access to it. Taken as a whole, it appears that the pose may have been used by deities and humans alike....This presents an interesting possibility: Some of the Harrapans were devoted to ritual discipline and concentration, and this was one of the preoccupations of at least one of their gods."


The devotees of Pashupati Siva are called Pashupatas. Their religious sect is also called Pashupata or Pasupata (Pashupata Shaivism). The Mahabharata's Narayaniya section mentions thePasupata School among five systems (namely SankhyaYogaPancharatraVeda and Pashupata). It was propagated by Lakulisa in 2nd century A.D.. Lakulisa was described in Puranas as 28th or last incarnation of Siva. Lakulisa composed the work Pancharthavidya, which says "A Pasupata must bathe thrice a day,must lie on the dust or ashes". This Pasupata Vow is described in Atharvasiras Upanishad, a sectatian work devoted to Rudra's glory.
Potnia Theron   is a term first used (once) by Homer (Iliad 21. 470) and often used to describe female divinities associated with animals.  The word Potnia, meaning mistress or lady, was a Mycenaean word inherited by Classical Greek, with the same meaning, which has an exact parallel in Sanskrit patnī.  
Homer's mention of potnia theron is thought to refer to Artemis and Walter Burkert describes this mention as "a well established formula".  An Artemis type deity, a 'Mistress of the Animals', is often assumed to have existed in prehistorical religion and often referred to as Potnia Theron, with some scholars positing a relationship between Artemis and goddesses depicted in Minoan art and "Potnia Theron has become a generic term for any female associated with animals.

Pashupata Shaivism  is the oldest of the major Shaivite schools.  The philosophy of Pashupata sect was systematized byLakulish (also called Nakuliśa ) in the 2nd century A.D. The main texts of the school are Gaṇakārikā, Pañchārtha bhāshyadipikā and Rāśikara-bhāshya.

The date of foundation of the school is uncertain. However, the Pashupatas may have existed from the 1st century AD.  Gavin Flood dates them to around the 2nd century AD.  They are also referred to in the epic Mahabharata which is thought to have reached a final form by 4th century CE.  The Pashupata movement was influential in South India in the period between the 7th and 14th century, but it no longer exists. 
Pashupata Shaivism was a devotional (bhakti) and ascetic movement.  Pashu in Pashupati refers to the effect (or created world), the word designates that which is dependent on something ulterior. Whereas, Pati means the cause (or prinripium), the word designates the Lord, who is the cause of the universe, the pati, or the ruler.  To free themselves from worldy fetters Pashupatas are instructed to do a pashupata vrata. Atharvasiras Upanishsad describes the pashupata vrata as that which consists of besmearing one's own body with ashes and at the same time muttering mantra — "Agni is ashes, Vayu is ashes, Sky is ashes, all this is ashes, the mind, these eyes are ashes. 
Haradattacharya, in Gaṇakārikā, explains that a spiritual teacher is one who knows the eight pentads and the three functions. The eight pentads of Acquisition(result of expedience), Impurity(evil in soul), Expedient(means of purification), Locality(aids to increase knowledge), Perseverance(endurance in pentads), Purification(putting away impurities), Initiation and Powers are 
Acquisitionknowledgepenancepermanence of the bodyconstancypurity
Impurityfalse conceptiondemeritattachmentinterestednessfalling
Expedientuse of habitationpious mutteringmeditationconstant recollection of Rudraapprehension
Localityspiritual teachersa caverna special placethe burning groundRudra
Perseverancethe differencedthe undifferencedmutteringacceptancedevotion
Purificationloss of ignoranceloss of demeritloss of attachmentloss of interestednessloss of falling
Initiationsthe materialproper timethe ritethe imagethe spiritual guide
Powersdevotion to the spiritual guideclearness of intellectconquest of pleasure and painmeritcarefulness
The three functions correspond to the means of earning daily food — mendicancy, living upon alms, and living upon what chance supplies. 
Pashupatas disapprove of the Vaishnava theology, known for its doctrine servitude of souls to the Supreme Being, on the grounds that dependence upon anything cannot be the means of cessation of pain and other desired ends. They recognize that those depending upon another and longing for independence will not be emancipated because they still depend upon something other than themselves. According to Pashupatas, spirits possess the attributes of the Supreme Deity when they become liberated from the 'germ of every pain'.  In this system the cessation of pain is of two kinds, impersonal and personal. Impersonal consists of the absolute cessation of all pains, whereas the personal consists of development of visual and active powers like swiftness of thought, assuming forms at will etc. The Lord is held to be the possessor of infinite, visual, and active powers. 
Pañchārtha bhāshyadipikā divides the created world into the insentient and the sentient. The insentient is unconscious and thus dependent on the conscious. The insentient is further divided into effects and causes. The effects are of ten kinds, the earth, four elements and their qualities, colour etc . The causes are of thirteen kinds, the five organs of cognition, the five organs of action, the three internal organs, intellect, the ego principle and the cognising principle. These insentient causes are held responsible for the illusive identification of Self with non-Self. The sentient spirit, which is subject to transmigration is of two kinds, the appetent and nonappetent. The appetent is the spirit associated with an organism and sense organs, whereas the non-appetent is the spirit without them. 
Union in the Pashupata system is a conjunction of the soul with God through the intellect. It is achieved in two ways, action and cessation of action. Union through action consists of pious muttering, meditation etc and union through cessation of action occurs through consciousness. 
Differences with other schools of Indian philosophy
Cessation of suffering in other systems like Sankhya occurs through the mere termination of miseries, but in Pashupata school it is the attainment of supremacy or of divine perfections. In other philosophies, the created world is that which has come into existence, but in this system it is eternal. In other schools of thought, birth in paradise involves a return to cycle of rebirth, but in this system it results in nearness to the Supreme Being. 
Rituals and spiritual practices were done to acquire merit or puṇya. They were divided into primary and secondary rituals, where primary rituals were the direct means of acquiring merit. Primary rituals included acts of piety and various postures. The acts of piety were bathing thrice a day, lying upon sand and worship with oblations of laughter, song, dance, sacred muttering etc. Postures involved absurd actions such as, snoring or showing signs of being asleep while awake, limping, wooing or gestures of a inamorato on seeing a young and pretty woman, talking nonsensically etc. Secondary rituals involved bearing marks of purity after bathing. 

Atreya &Brahmarshi Vishvamitra

An Atreya (आत्रेय) is a descendant of Atri, one of the great Hindu sages (rishis) whose accomplishments are detailed in the Puranas.
The descendents of Atri Rishi use Atreya as their surname just like many other Gotras, or clan names used by the Brahmin community of Hindus in India and Nepal. In Northern India, most Atreya Bhramins also prefer to use the Tyagi surname. Many of the Kshatriyas of South India also belong to this Gotra.
Original Atreya gotri bramhin have migrated to East Indian state of Orissa which was in the ancient time known as Kalinga, Utkala/Utkal, South Kosal, Kongada, Odra Desha etc. All Oriya-Utkala Brahmins with surname Rath belong to the Atreya gotra in the line of rathātreya (रथात्रेय). People with the surname Paudel also belongs to this Gotra. a son of Atri and compiler of the Ṛk Veda, 5th Maṇḍala.

Brahmarshi Vishvamitra      is one of the most venerated rishis or sages of ancient times in India. He is also credited as the author of most of Mandala 3 of the Rigveda, including the Gayatri Mantra. The Puranas mention that only 24 rishis since antiquity have understood the whole meaning of, and thus wielded the whole power of, the Gayatri Mantra. Vishvamitra is supposed to be the first and Yajnavalkya the last.


Vishvamitra was a king in ancient India, also called Kaushika "descendant of Kusha". He was a valiant warrior and the great-grandson of a great king named Kusha. The Valmiki Ramayana, prose 51 of Bala Kanda, starts with the story of Vishvamitra:
The story of Vishvamitra is narrated in the Balakanda of Valmiki Ramayana. The Mahabharata adds that Vishvamitra's relationship with Menaka resulted in a daughter, Shakuntala whose story is narrated in the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata.
There was a king named Kusha (not to be confused with Kusha, son of Rama), a brainchild of Brahma, and Kusha's son was the powerful and verily righteous Kushanabha. One who is highly renowned by the name Gaadhi was the son of Kushanabha, and Gaadhi's son is this great-saint of great resplendence, Vishvamitra. Vishvamitra ruled the earth, and this great-resplendent king ruled the kingdom for many thousands of years.
His story also appears in various Puranas, however they show variations from the Ramayana. The Vishnu Purana and Harivamsha chapter 27 (dynasty of Amaavasu) of Mahabharatha narrates the birth of Vishvamitra. According to Vishnu Purana, kushika married a damsel belonging to Purukutsa dynasty (later called as Shatamarshana lineage - descendents of the Ikshvaku king Trasadasyu) and had a son by name Gaadhi who had a daughter named Satyavati (not to be confused with the Satyavati of Mahabharata).
Satyavati was married to an old Brahmin known as Ruchika who was foremost among the race of Bhrigu. Ruchika desired a son having the qualities of a Brahmin, and so he gave Satyavati a sacrificial offering (charu) which he had prepared to achieve this objective. He also gave Satyavati's mother another charu to make her conceive a son with the character of a Kshatriya at her request. But Satyavati's mother privately asked Satyavati to exchange her charu with her. This resulted in Satyavati's mother giving birth to Vishvamitra, the son of a Kshatriya Gadhi with the qualities of a Brahmin; and Satyavati gave birth to Jamadagni, the father of Parashurama, a Brahmin with qualities of a Kshatriya.
Conflict with Vasistha
On one of his exploits, he and his soldiers took rest in the ashram of Rishi Vasistha. There, his whole army was well fed and taken care of. This caused a doubt in the king's mind as to how it was possible for this simple ashram to take care of all the arrangements to feed an entire army. He expressed his surprise to the sage. Vasistha replied,
"O king, this feast that you have partaken with your kinsmen, has been provided by my calf Nandini (sometimes referred as Sabala), who was gifted to me by Indra. You must know that she is the daughter of Indra's cow Kamadhenu. She provides me with everything I need."
Kaushika was filled with wonder when he heard this. He began to think that possessing this cow would mean a lot to him; after all, the sage did not have to provide food and sustenance for a large army everyday. He expressed a desire to the sage for obtaining Nandini from him. Vasistha was polite, but steadfast in his refusal. He would not be tempted by the offer of untold wealth that was made by Kaushika, for after all who can set a price on a cow, which can readily yield all the riches in the world.


The king grew exceedingly angry. He insulted the Brahmarishi with harsh words, and ordered his soldiers to seize the cow, and drive it to his kingdom. Nandini was the daughter of Kamdhenu and hence she forcefully protested against the soldiers. Using her powers, she saved the life of Vashishtha.
Alternative Version
Vasistha destroys Kaushika's entire army by the simple use of his great mystic and spiritual powers, breathing the Aum syllable. Vasistha also thus kills one hundred of Kaushika's sons, while restoring his hermitage's beauty and life.
Kaushika then undertakes a tapasya for several years to please Shiva, who bestows upon him the knowledge of celestial weaponry. He proudly goes to Vasistha's ashram again, and uses all kinds of powerful weapons to destroy Vasistha and his hermitage. He succeeds in the latter but not in the former.
An enraged Vasistha brings out his brahmadanda, a wooden stick imbued with the power of Brahma. It consumes Kaushika's most powerful weapons, including the brahmastra. Vasistha then attempts to attack Kaushika, but his anger is allayed by the Devas. Kaushika is left humiliated while Vasistha restores his hermitage.
This incident made a deep impression on the King. He realized that the power obtained by penances was far greater than mere physical might. He renounced his kingdom and began his quest to become a greater rishi than Vasistha. He took on the name Vishvamitra. It is very interesting to see all the challenges that Viswamitra faced in his life to become a Brahmarishi, before eventually giving up the greed to possess the cow. After many trials and undergoing many austerities, Vishvamitra at last obtained the title of Brahmarishi from Vasistha himself. During this time he had a daughter namedShakuntala (who appears in the Mahabharata) with Menaka, an apsara in the court of Indra. Son of Shakuntala became a great emperor. He came to be known as Emperor Bharata, in whose name the land of India got its name Bharatha.
Alternative version
Kaushika seeks to attain the same spiritual power as Vasistha, to become his equal, a brahmarishi. He undertakes a fierce penance for one thousand years, after which Brahma names him a Rajarishi, or royal sage.
After another long penance of thousand years, Brahma names him a rishi, thus leaving his royal lineage permanently. And Brahma suggest him to take Bramharshi grade from his guru Vashishta only, as he only has the power to call you as Brahmarshi.
At this point, Indra, the king of Swarga attempts to test the tapasvin by sending Menaka, an apsara to seduce him. Kaushik then lives with Menaka for 10 years. They have a baby girl Shakuntala. Kaushik becomes angry as Menaka had destroyed his years of meditation and thus he cursed her that she won't possess her beauty, of which she was proud, in next birth.
Kaushika now goes to the banks of the river Kaushiki, which is the spirit of his own sister. After many thousands of years of penance, Brahma names him maharishi, but also tells him that he hasn't become a jitendriya yet, lacking control over his passions. This is brought to light to Kaushika when he angrily curses Rambha, an apsara sent by Indra to seduce Kaushika again, to become a stone for a thousand years.
Rise to Brahmarishi
After cursing Rambha, Kaushika goes to the highest mountain of the Himalayas to perform an even more severe tapasya for over a thousand years. He ceases to eat, and reduces his breathing to a bare minimum.
He is tested again by Indra, who comes as a poor Brahmin begging for food just as Kaushika is ready to break a fast of many years by eating some rice. Kaushika instantly gives his food away to Indra and resumes his meditation. Kaushika also finally masters his passions, refusing to be provoked by any of Indra's testing and seductive interferences.
At the penultimate culmination of a multi-thousand year journey, Kaushika's yogic power is at a peak. At this point, Brahma, at the head of the Devasled by Indra, names Kaushika a brahmarishi, and names him Vishvamitra, or Friend of All for his unlimited compassion. He is also embraced byVasistha, and their enmity is instantly ended.
Vishvamitra's Characteristics
As a former king, and one over as vast a realm as he had been, Vishvamitra was known to retain a regal and often haughty bearing. He was known for his high temper and often cursed people in his anger, thereby depleting his yogic powers obtained by much penance. People feared his temper and prayed that their actions might not get misconstrued by the touchy sage.
However, as a former king, Vishvamitra also possessed great compassion for all beings. Having taken pity on Trishanku, he willingly exhausted all the punya he gained from his tapas, to enable him to ascend to the heavens. Following his attainment of the status of brahmarishi, he was known to use the power of his tapas to help anyone who was in need, whatever the cost to himself.
Kaushika's love of Menaka is considered to have been intense and passionate.
Gayatri Mantra
Sage Vishvamitra was the one who found revered great Mantra - The Gayatri Mantra. It is a mantra found in the Rig, Yajur, and Sama Vedas. Gayathri is actually a "Chandas" or meter.
Vishvamitra is famous in many legendary stories and in different works of Sanatana dharma.
Another story Vishvamitra is known for is his creation of his own version of Svarga or heaven, called Trisanku Svarga. When a proud King Trisanku asked his guruVasistha, to send him to heaven in his own body, the guru responded that the body cannot ascend to heaven.
King Trisanku then asked Vasistha's hundred sons to send him to heaven. The sons, outraged that Trisanku should not come to them when their father had refused, cursed him to be a Chandala, or untouchable. Trisanku was transformed into a person with body smeared of ash, clothed in black and wearing Iron jewellery. Since none of his subjects could recognize him, he was driven out of the kingdom.
He came across the sage Vishvamitra, who agreed to help him. Visvamitra organized a great sacrifice and ritual propitiating the Devas, pleading that they accept Trisanku in heaven. Not one Deva responded. Angered, Viswamitra used his yogic powers and ordered Trisanku to rise to heaven. Miraculously, Trisanku rose into the sky until he reached heaven, where he was pushed back down by Indra.
Enraged even more by this, the powerful Visvamitra then commenced the creation of another Universe (including another Brahma) for Trisanku. He had only completed the Universe when Brihaspati ordered him to stop. Trisanku, however, did not enjoy Trisanku Svarga, he remained fixed in the sky and was transformed into a constellation.
In the process of forming a new universe, Vishvamitra used up all the tapas he had gained from his austerities. Therefore after the Trisanku episode, Vishvamitra had to start his prayers again to attain the status of a Brahma Rishi, to equal Vashistha.
Ambarisha's Sacrifice
While undertaking a penance, Kaushika helps a boy named Shunashepa who has been sold by his parents to be sacrificed at Ambarisha's yagna to please Varuna, the God of the Oceans. The king's son Rohit does not want to be the one sacrificed, as was originally promised to Varuna, so young Sunashepa is being taken. A devastated and terrified Sunashepa falls at the feet of Kaushika, who is deep in meditation, and begs for his help. 
Kaushika teaches secret mantras to Sunashepa. The boy sings these mantras at the ceremony, and is blessed by Indra and Varuna, and Harishchandra's ceremony is also completed.
In the Ramayana
In the Indian epic Ramayana, Vishvamitra is the preceptor of Rama, prince of Ayodhya and the seventhAvatar of Vishnu, and his brother Lakshmana.
Vishvamitra gives them the knowledge of the Devastras or celestial weaponry [bala and adi bala], trains them in advanced religion and guides them to kill powerful demons like TatakaMaricha and Subahu. He also leads them to the svayamvara ceremony for princess Sita, who becomes the wife of Rama.
Vishvamitra In Buddhism
In the Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga (I.245)  section the Buddha pays respect to Vishwamitra by declaring that the Veda in its true form was declared to the Vedic rishis "Atthako, Vâmako, Vâmadevo,VessâmittoYamataggiAngirasBhâradvâjoVâsetthoKassapo, and Bhagu"  and because that true Veda was altered by some priests he refused to pay homage to the altered version. 
There are two gotras, or lineages, bearing the name of Vishvamitra.
Vishvamitra Gotra
People belonging to the Vishvamitra Gotra consider Brahmarishi Vishvamitra as their ancestor.
There is an off-shoot of "Vishvamitra Gotra" called "Chakita Vishvamitra Gotra". Two explanations have been suggested for this off-shoot. The group is supposed to have sprung from a "surprised" reaction of Vishvamitra. The other, more likely, explanation, is that a group of descendants decided to split from the main group and started their own branch of this line.
Kaushika Gotra
People belonging to Kaushika ( Kaushik /Kousika/Kousikasa/Koushika/Kausika) Gotra take Rajarishi Kausika as their root.
  1. Kausika was one of the names of Vishvamitra who was supposed to have lived in Mithila (presently in Nepal's Terai and India's Bihar) where his sister river Koshi still flows turbulently as she is said to be unmarried. Many Maithil Brahmins are of Kaushik gotra with moola Nikutwar barhi, Nikutwar nikuti and garh.
  2. Bhrindwal Brahmin of Haryana belongs to Kaushik gotra.
  3. 11 Royal clans of 96 clan of Marathas belong to Kaushik gotra including the illustrious house of Shivaji and Rashtrakutas. 2 more clans belong to the Vishvamitra gotra.
  4. Kaushika gotra also belongs to Bais clan of rajputs, who are suryavanshi rajput.
  5. Many Kashmiri pandits belong to Kaushika gotra especially those bearing surname'Ganjoo'. Many Kanyakubji Bramhins found in different states also belong to this gotra,as their forefathers have migrated from Kashmir valley before settling around Kanyakubja (present day Kanauj in U.P.India).
  6. Many Deshastha and Kokanastha Brahmins from Indian State of Maharashtra belong to Kaushik Gotra.
  7. Many of the Niyogi Brahmins as well as Vaidika Brahmins from the state of Andhra Pradesh also belong to the Kaushika/Kaushika-sa Gotra.
  8. Some members of the Anavil Brahmin community from South Gujarat have Kaushik as a Gotra, especially Anavil Brahmin with the Desai surname, who where tradition local Brahmin rulers in the South Gujarat region since vedic times. Although most Anavil Brahmin have different Gotra.
  9. Some members of Iyer or Iyengar Tamil Brahmin communities as well as Namboodiri kerala Brahmins have kausika gotra lineage.
  10. Nandwana Bhramins of Gujrat and Rajasthan have Kaushik Gotra as well
  11. Nallani Chakravartula's from Andhra Pradesh belonging to Kaushika Gotra
  12. Daivadnyas of KonkanGoa have both Vishwamitra and Kaushika Gotra.They have surnames like Baikerikar,Bhatt, Shekejan, Kurdikar, Shet, Kurdikar, Shejwadkar, Revankar, Mankame,Ambavane.They popularly refer to Vishwamitra gotra as Kaunsh gotra.A very few Goud Saraswat Brahmins of the region belong to this gotra especially ones with the surnameShenoy.
Geographical Distribution
  • MithilaNepal Terai and present Bihar's north portion
  • Haryana
  • Assam valley
  • Orissa
  • Gujarat
  • Rajasthan
  • Maharashtra
  • Himachal Pradesh
  • Karnataka
  • Kerala
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • West Bengal
  • Bharindwal Surname Brahmins-Kaushik Gotram
  • Chevitikanti or Gandavarupu (Niyogi Brahmins - Kaushikasa Gotram)
  • Ejanthakar (Bhavsar Kshatriyas from Maharashtra - Kaushik Gotram)
  • Tatta (Srivaishnavaites, Andhra Pradesh (Viswamithra Gotra)
  • Kappagantula (Vaidika Velanadu Brahmins of Kaushika Gothra from Andhra Pradesh)
  • Singhs of North Bihar(Kaushika Rajputs of Viswamitra Gotra) and U.P.
  • Mittagunta (are Niyogi Brahmins of the Kaushika Gotra)
  • Pavani/voruganti (are Niyogi Brahmins of the Kaushika Gotra)(AndhraPradesh Brahmins)
  • Jayanthi (Vaidika Bhramins of Kaushika-sa Gotra from Andhra Pradesh)
  • Katrapati (Niyogi Brahmins of Kaushika-sa Gothra from Andhra Pradesh)
  • Nanduri (Niyogi Brahmins of Kaushika-sa Gothra from Andhra Pradesh)
  • Basavaraju (Niyogi Brahmins of Kaushika Gothra from Andhra Pradesh)
  • Yeleswarapu (Vaidika Brahmins of Kaushika-sa Gothra from Andhra Pradesh)
  • Ganduri (Vaidika Velanadu Brahmins of Kaushika Gothra from Andhra Pradesh)
  • Chitrapu (Niyogi Brahmins of Kaushika Gothra from Andhra Pradesh)
  • Desai (some Desai of Anavil Brahmin of Gujarat are of Kaushika Gotra)
  • Trivedi of Modh Brahmin belonging to Kaushika Gotra
  • Dave (some Dave Audichya Brahmins of Gujarat belong to Kaushika Gotra)
  • Sripada (vaidiki velnadu Brahmins of Andhra Pradesh belong to Kaushika Gotra
  • Dhulipala of Andhra Brahmin belongs to Kaushika sa Gotra
  • Mallela of Vaidiki Brahmins of Andhra Pradesh belongs to Kaushika Gotra
  • Mitra of West Bengal belongs to Vishvamitra Gotra
  • Chakrabarty (some of them)in West Bengal belongs to Ghrita Kaushik Gotra.
  • Joshi of Uttrakhand belong to Kaushik Gotra.
  • Lakkavajhula (Vaidika Velanadu Brahmins of Vishwamitra Gothra from Andhra Pradesh)
  • Velivela (Niyogi Brahmins of Vishwamitra Gothra from Andhra Pradesh)
  • Velala (Madhwa Brahmins (Viswamitra) gothra of Andhrapradesh)