Places of Indian Rebellion of 1857-(15)

City of Faizabad (Hindiफ़ैज़ाबाद,   Old British Colonial: Fyzabad), the old capital of Awadh, is the headquarters of Faizabad District and Faizabad division as well. Its a joint municipal board with Ayodhya in the state of Uttar PradeshIndia, situated on the banks of river Ghaghra (locally known as Saryu). It was the first capital of the Nawabs of Awadh and has monuments built by the Nawabs of Avadh, like the Tomb of Bahu BegumGulab Bari etc. The Legend of Avadh, Umrao Jaan 'Ada', was born in Faizabad (her childhood name was Ameeran). Another legend and Hindi writer Mr. Radhika Prasad Tripathi was from this city. Akhtaribai Faizabadi, also known as Begum Akhtar, was born in Faizabad. She was a classical singer who performed Urdu ghazals, dadras, thumris, etc. Among other notable people from Faizabad are Mir Babar Ali Anis, a nineteenth century writer of Marsiya (elegies in Urdu) and Brij Narayan Chakbast, another nineteenth-century Urdu poet. Chakbast is credited to have translated the Ramayana into Urdu for the first time.


The earliest reference made to Faizabad is said to be in theRamayana, in which the city is referred to as Saket, the mythical private estate of King Dashrath, father of Lord Ram but the other sources indicate that Saket, which means Heaven in Sanskrit, is the ancient name of holy city of Ayodhya not Faizabad. However, more accurately, the reference is found in Medieval and Modern history, when Nawab Saadat Ali Khan, Burhan-ul-Mulk was given the charge of the Subah of Awadh around 1722 by the Mughal Court. Nawab Sa'adat Khan made the first settlements along the banks of Ghaghra with a cantonment consisting of a fortress and mud barracks. Due to these temporary dwellings, Faizabad was first known as 'Bangla' (implied meaning- hutment).
Establishment of Princely state of Avadh
Avadh, a princely state of India, was established around 1722 AD with Faizabad as its capital and Saadat Ali Khan I as first Nawab and progenitor of Nawabs of Awadh He made his own palace near Ayodhya, and founded a new city Faizabad, which became the capital of the new government. Due to his management policy state's income rose from Rupees 70 lakhs to 2 crores. 
Faizabad was developed later on by Saadat Ali Khan's second successor, Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula into a full fledged capital city, with gardens, palaces, markets, roads and other infrastructure. Under Shuja-ud-Daula's reign Faizabad achieved its culmination as an important centre of trade and commerce in northern India and attracted travellers, writers, merchants, artists and courtesans from sll over Europe and Asia.Shuja-ud-Daula also built a fortress on the banks of Saryu after he lost the battle of Buxar in 1764. however, this fort now is nothing more than a hummock, just an edict remains which is pictured here.
Faizabad was also a centre of one of many battles of the Mutiny of 1857. A detailed history of Faizabad can be read in 'Tareekh-e-Farahbaksh', written by Munshi Mohd. Faiz Baksh, (after whom Faizabad is named) a courtier in the Shuja-ud-Daula's court. This book has been translated into English by Hamid Afaq Qureshi as 'Memoirs of Faizabad'. Faizabad also finds a prominent and detailed mention in 'Guzishta Lakhnau' written by Maulvi Abdul Halim 'Sharar'. The third nawab of Awadh, Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula, shifted the Capital of Avadh to Lucknow in 1775 after his terms with his mother became sour. 
Saadat Khan, the first Nawab of Awadh, laid the foundation of Faizabad at the outskirt of ancient city of Ayodhya. Faizabad developed as a township during the reign of Safdar Jang, the second nawab of Avadh (1739–54), who made it his military headquarters while his successor Shuja-ud-daula made it full fledged capital city. Suja-ud-daula, the third Nawab of Awadh, settled at Faizabad after 1764 and built a fort known as Chhota Calcutta, now in ruins. In 1765 he built the Chowk and Tirpaulia and subsequently laid out the Anguribagh and Motibagh to the south of it, Asafbagh and Bulandbagh to the west of the city. During the reign ofShuja-Ud-Daula, Faizabad attained such a prosperity which it never saw again. The Nawabs graced Faziabad with several beautiful buildings, notable among them being the Gulab Bari, Moti Mahal and the tomb of Bahu Begum. Gulab Bari is a striking building of fine properties, standing in a garden surrounded by a wall, approachable through two large gateways. These buildings are particularly interesting for their assimilative architectural styles. Shuja-ud-daula's wife was the well known Bahu Begum, who married the Nawab in 1743 and continued to reside in Faizabad, her residence being the Moti-Mahal. Close by at Jawaharbagh lies her Maqbara, where she was buried after her death in 1816. It is considered to be one of the finest buildings of its kind in Avadh, which was built at the cost of three lakh rupees by her chief advisor Darab Ali Khan. A fine view of the city is obtainable from top of the begum's tomb. Bahu Begum was a woman of great distinction and rank, bearing dignity. Most of the Muslim buildings of Faizabad are attributed to her. From the date of Bahu Begum's death in 1815 till the annexation of Avadh, the city of Faizabad gradually fell into decay. The glory of Faizabad finally eclipsed with the shifting of capital from Faizabad to Lucknow by Nawab Asaf-ud-daula. 
Connection of freedom fighters with Faizabad

Ashfaqulla Khan was detained in the Faizabad jail. A case was filed against him. His brother Riyasat Ulla Khan deployed Kripa Shankar Hajela, a senior advocate to plea his case as a counsellor. Mr Hajela fought the case till the very end but he could not save his life. While in jail, Ashfaq daily performed five times Islamic prayer ('Namaj'). The case of the Kakori conspiracy was concluded by awarding death sentence to four daredevils viz. Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Rajendra Lahiri and Thakur Roshan Singh. The sixteen others were awarded the rigorous punishment varying from four years up to life sentence.
A section of people believe that the prominent Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary, Subash Chandra Bose spent his last days in Faizabad living incognito as a godman called 'Gumnami Baba'. This came under attention when 'Gumnami Baba' died in 1985 and was cremated secretively on the banks of river saryu (a memorial has been built at that place), in the dead of night, in the light of a motorcycle's headlight. Its also said that at the time of cremation his face was disfigured by acid to protect his identity. However, no government enquiry was launched into this matter and the identity of Gumnami Baba still remains an enigma.
As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Faizabad in 2011 is 167,544; of which male and female are 87,279 and 80,265 respectively. The sex ratio of Faizabad city is 920 per 1000 males. In education section, total literates in Faizabad city are 130,700 of which 70,243 are males while 60,457 are females. Average literacy rate of Faizabad city is 86.52 percent of which male and female literacy was 89.34 and 83.45 percent. Total children (0-6) in Faizabad city are 16,479 as per figure from Census India report on 2011. There were 8,658 boys while 7,821 are girls. Child sex ratio of girls is 903 per 1000 boys. Faizabad city is governed by Municipal Corporation which comes under Faizabad Urban Agglomeration. Although Faizabad city has population of 167,544; its urban / metropolitan population is 259,160 of which 139,074 are males and 120,086 are females.

Places of Indian Rebellion of 1857(14)

Etawah (Hindiइटावा) is a city on the Yamuna River in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. It is the administrative headquarters of Etawah District. The city was an important center for the Revolt of 1857 (Allan Octavian Hume, the founder of Indian National Congress was district collector then). Also is the place of sangam or confluencebetween Yamuna and Chambal. It is also the site of the remains of the Great Hedge of India. Population of Etawah in 2001 census was 141,460.


Etawah was a town and district of British India, in the Agra division of the United Provinces. The town is situated on the left bank of the Yamuna, and has a station on the Indian Railway (Northern Zone), 386 km from Allahabad. Deep fissures intersect the various quarters of the town, over which broad roads connect the higher portions by bridges and embankments. Considerable trade is carried on by rail, National Highway 2 (Earlier Grand Trunk Road) and river.
The district of Etawah lies in the southwestern portion of Uttar Pradesh 26° 47" north latitude and 72° 20" east longitude and forms a part of the Kanpur Division. In shape it is a parallelogram with a length from north to south 70 km. and East to west 66 km. on one side and 24 km. on the other side. It is bounded on the north by the districts of Farrukhabad and Mainpuri, while the small extent of western border adjoins tahsil Bah of the Agra district. The eastern frontier marches with the district of Auraiya, and along the south lie Jalaun and the district of Gwalior, the division line being, except for a short distance, the Chambal and Yamuna rivers. The total area in 1999 is calculated to be 2434 km.
The district exhibits a striking variety of surface and scenery. The greater portion lies within the Doab or level alluvial plain between the Ganges and the Yamuna. This part falls naturally into two sections, divided by the deep and fissured valley of the river Sengar.
The tract to the north-east of that stream is rich and fertile, being watered by the Kanpur and Etawah branches of the Ganges canal, and other important works. The south-western region has the same natural advantages, but possesses no great irrigation system, and is consequently less fruitful than the opposite slopes. Near the banks of the Yamuna, the plain descends into the river valley by a series of wild ravines and terraces, inhabited only by a scattered race of hereditary herdsmen. Beyond the Jamuna, a strip of land extends along the tangled gorges of the Chambal and the Kuari Nadi, far into the borders of the Gwalior state. This outlying tract embraces a series of rocky glens and mountain torrents, crowned by the ruins of native strongholds, and interspersed with narrow ledges of cultivable alluvium. The climate, once hot and sultry, has now become comparatively moist and equable under the influence of irrigation and the planting of trees.
Etawah is located  It has an average elevation of 197 metres (456 feet).
As per provisional data of 2011 census, Etawah had a population of 15,79,160 out of which males were 8,54,145 and females were 7,25,015. The literacy rate was 82.89 per cent. 

Ancient era
This region is believed to have existed even in the Bronze Age.The earliest Aryans who lived here were the Panchalas.They are said to have had close connections with Kurus.
Tradition holds the history of the town started with its foundation by a successor of King Bharat. The region also finds mention in the Mahabharata and Ramayana epics.
The Guptas, Kanvas, Kanishka, Naga kings ruled over this area. In the fourth century A.D., it was part of united India under the Guptas.
During the ninth and tenth centuries, this region was governed by Gurjara Pratihara rulers. The conquest of Kannauj by Nagabhata II handed Pratiharas control over this region. During the reign of Gurjara Pratihara monarch Mihir Bhoj, the region is mentioned as prosperous, safe from thieves and rich in natural resources. 
Revolt of 1857
During the First War of Independence in 1857 major disturbances occurred in Etawah, and the district was occupied by the freedom fighters from June to December. British rule was not completely restored till the end of 1858.
Modern history and economy
Etawah has experienced modernization and development under British Raj and in the post-independence period.
The district is partly watered by branches of the Ganges canal.
It is traversed by the main line of the Indian railway (northern zone) which runs from Kanpur to Agra and beyond. The railway was first built during the British Raj.
Cotton, oilseeds, Ghee and other agricultural produce, and, a special breeds of goat and buffalo are grown and exported.
The region has a 652 MW natural gas-based power generation plant. However it lacks manufacturing industries.
Etawah was known for its handloom products; most of them are converted into powerlooms thanks to the advent of better technology. 'Etawah' is derived from the burnor of bricks (where bricks are made); it has thousands of brick centre between its boundaries.

Places of Indian Rebellion of 1857(13)

Delhi   officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) that includes the Indian capital New Delhi, is the second most populous metropolis in India after Mumbai, with a population of 16.3 million in 2011. The city is also the eighth most populous metropolis in the world.  The NCT and its urban region have been given the special status of National Capital Region (NCR) under theConstitution of India's 69th amendment act of 1991. The greater NCR urban, which includes the neighbouring cities BaghpatGurgaonSonepatFaridabadGhaziabadNoidaGreater Noida and other nearby towns, has nearly 22.2 million residents. 
Delhi is known to have been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BC.  Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of kingdoms and empires. It has been invaded, ransacked and rebuilt several times, particularly during the Medieval era, and therefore the modern city of Delhi is a cluster of many cities scattered across the metropolitan region. Delhi is also believed to have been the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas during the times of the Mahabharata.  Delhi re-emerged as a major political, cultural and commercial city along the trade routes between northwest India and the Gangetic plain after the rise of the Delhi sultanates.  It houses many ancient and medieval monuments, archaeological sites and remains.
In 1639 AD, the Mughal emperor Shahjahan built a new walled city in Delhi which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1649 until the Rebellion of 1857. The British had captured Delhi in 1857 and George Vannounced in 1911 that the capital of British-controlled parts of India would be Delhi.  A new capital city, New Delhi, was built to the south of the old city during the 1920s.  When British held territories gainedindependence in 1947, New Delhi was declared its capital and seat of government. The new republic later incorporated over 500 self-governing & independent Princely States that were scattered all over India.New Delhi remained capital of united & one India.
The name Delhi is often also used to include urban areas near the NCT, and to refer to New Delhi, which lies within the metropolis. Although technically a federally administered union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federalGovernment of India and the local Government of Delhi, and is the capital of the NCT of Delhi.

Etymology and idioms

The name Delhi is thought to derive from Dhillu or Dilu, a king of Mauryan dynasty who built the city in 50 BC and named it after himself. The Hindi/Prakrit word dhili (loose) was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the Iron Pillar built by Raja Dhava had a weak foundation and was replaced.  The coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal. Some other historians believe that the name is derived from Dilli, a corruption of dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning 'threshold' or 'gateway'— and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.  Another theory suggests that the city's original name was Dhillika. As per Bhavishya PuranaPrithviraj Chauhan, the King of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and later named the fort dehali. 
The people of Delhi are referred to as Dilliwallahs or Delhiites. The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include:
  • Abhi Dilli door hai or its Persian version, Hanouz Dehli dour ast, literally meaning Delhi is still far away, which is generically said about a task or journey still far from completion. 
  • Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring.
  • Aas-paas barse, Dilli pari tarse, literally meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty.


In 1206, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, the first ruler of the Turkic Slave Dynasty established the Delhi Sultanate and started the construction the Qutub Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (might of Islam), the earliest extant mosque in India.After the fall of the Slave dynasty, a succession of Turkic dynasties, the Khilji dynasty, the Tughluq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty and theLodhi dynasty held power in the late medieval period and built a sequence of forts and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi.
The area around Delhi was probably inhabited before the second millennium BC, and continuous inhabitation has been evidenced since at least the 6th century BC. The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata.  Settlements grew from the time of the Mauryan Empire (c. 300 BC). Remains of seven major cities have been discovered in Delhi. Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kotin AD 736. The Chauhans conquered Lal Kot in 1180 and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora. The Chauhan king Prithviraj III was defeated in 1192 by the invaderMuhammad Ghori. 

In 1526, Zahiruddin Babur, a descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from the Fergana Valley in modern-day Uzbekistan, invaded India, defeated the last Lodhi sultan in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi and Agra.
  The Mughal dynasty ruled Delhi for more than three centuries, with a sixteen-year hiatus during the reign of Sher Shah Suri, from 1540 to 1556. During 1553–1556, the Hindu king, Hemu Vikramaditya acceded to the throne of Delhi by defeating forces of Mughal Emperor Humayun at Agra and Delhi. However, the Mughals reestablished their rule after Akbar's army defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat. Shah Jahan built the seventh city of Delhi that bears his name Shahjahanabad, which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1638 and is today known as the Old City or Old Delhi. 
In 1398, Timur Lenk invaded India on the pretext that the Turkic Muslim sultans of Delhi were too lenient towards their Hindu subjects. Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked and left in ruins.  Near Delhi, Timur massacred 100,000 captives.  Delhi was a major centre of Sufism during the Sultanate period. 

After 1720, the Mughal Empire's influence declined rapidly as the Hindu Maratha Empire rose to prominence.
 In 1737, Maratha forces sacked Delhi following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. In 1739, the Mughal Empire lost the Battle of Karnal, following which the victorious forces of Nader Shah, the Turkic ruler of the Afsharid dynasty, invaded and looted Delhi, carrying away many treasures including the Peacock Throne.  A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protectors of the Mughal throne in Delhi.  In January 1757, Abdali invaded Delhi. He returned to Afghanistan in April 1757 giving the control of Delhi to Najib-ud-Daula. However, Marathas occupied Delhi after defeating Najib in the Battle of Delhi. In 1761, the Marathas lost Delhi as a consequence of the third battle of Panipat, as the city was again raided by Abdali. In early 1771,Mahadji Shinde recaptured Delhi and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II was restored to the throne in 1772. Marathas regained their status as protectors of the Mughal throne in Delhi.
The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi.  The Act gave Delhi its own legislative assembly along Civil lines, though with limited powers.  In December 2001, the Parliament of India building in New Delhi was attacked by armed militants, killing six security personnel.  India suspected Pakistan-based militant groups, which caused a major diplomatic crisis between the two countries.  Delhi again experienced terrorist attacks in October 2005and September 2008, resulting in the deaths of 62 and 30  civilians respectively.
In 1803, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, the forces of British East India Company defeated the Maratha forces in the Battle of Delhi. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Delhi fell after a bloody fight known as Siege of Delhi, to the forces of East India Company. It came under direct control of the British Government in 1858. It was made a district province of the Punjab.  In 1911, it was declared that the capital of British held territories in India will be transferred fromCalcutta to Delhi.  The new Capital was christened "New Delhi" in 1927,and subsequently inaugurated on 13 February 1931. New Delhi, also known as Lutyens' Delhi,  was officially declared as the capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947.  During the partition of India, thousands of Hindu and Sikh refugees, mainly from West Punjab fled to Delhi, while many Muslim residents of the city migrated to Pakistan. Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues (as of 2012), contributing more to the rise of Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining. 

Delhi is located and lies in Northern India. It borders the Indian states of Haryana on the north, west and south and Uttar Pradesh (UP) to the east. During the British Raj, Delhi was part of the province of Punjab and is still historically and culturally connected to the Punjab region.  Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plains and the Delhi ridge. The Yamuna river was the historical boundary between Punjab and UP, and its flood plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture but are prone to recurrent floods. The Yamuna, a sacred river in Hinduism, is the only major river flowing through Delhi. The Hindon River separates Ghaziabad from the eastern part of Delhi. The Delhi ridge originates from the Aravalli Range in the south and encircles the west, north-east and north-west parts of the city. It reaches a height of 318 m (1,043 ft) and is a dominant feature of the region. 
The National Capital Territory of Delhi covers an area of 1,484 km2 (573 sq mi), of which 783 km2 (302 sq mi) is designated rural, and 700 km2 (270 sq mi) urban. Delhi has a length of 51.9 km (32 mi) and a width of 48.48 km (30 mi). Delhi has the third highest quantity of trees among Indian cities. Delhi was one of the ten most polluted cities in the world during the 1990s, with 70% of the polluting emissions produced by vehicles. In 1996 the Centre for Science and Environment started a public interest litigation in the Supreme Court of India that ordered the conversion of Delhi's fleet of buses and taxis to run on Compressed Natural Gas and banned the use of leaded petrol in 1998. In 2003, Delhi won the United States Department of Energy’s first ‘Clean Cities International Partner of the Year’ award for its "bold efforts to curb air pollution and support alternative fuel initiatives". 
Delhi is included in India's seismic zone-IV, making it vulnerable to major earthquakes, but earthquakes have not been common in recent history. 
Temperatures in Delhi range from -0.6 to 46.7 °C (30.9 to 116.1 °F). The annual mean temperature is 25 °C (77 °F); monthly mean temperatures range from 13 to 32 °C (55 to 90 °F). The highest temperature recorded in July was 45 °C(113 °F) in 1931. The average annual rainfall is approximately 714 mm (28.1 in), most of which falls during the monsoon in July and August.  The average date of the advent of monsoon winds in Delhi is 29 June. 
Delhi features an atypical version of the humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa). Summers are long and the weather is extremely hot from early April to mid-October, with the monsoon season in between.  In early March, the wind direction changes from north-westerly to south-westerly. From March to May the weather is hot.  The monsoon arrives at the end of June, along with an increase in humidity.  The brief, mild winter starts in late November, peaks in January and heavy fog often occurs.
Civic administration
As of July 2007, the National Capital Territory of Delhi comprises nine districts, 27 tehsils, 59 census towns, 300 villages,
 and three statutory towns, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) – 1,397.3 km2 or 540 sq mi, theNew Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) – 42.7 km2 or 16 sq mi and the Delhi Cantonment Board (DCB) – 43 km2 or 17 sq mi).  On 16 July 2012, the Delhi Government decided to increase the number of districts from nine to 11. 
The Delhi metropolitan area lies within the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), which has five local municipal corporations; North Delhi Municipal Corporation, South Delhi Municipal Corporation, East Delhi Municipal Corporation, NDMC and DCB. The former MCD was divided into three smaller Municipal Corporations – North Delhi, South Delhi and East Delhi. According to the 2011 census, MCD is among the largest municipal bodies in the world, providing civic services to about 11 million people. 
Delhi houses the Supreme Court of India, and the regional Delhi High Court, along with the Small Causes Court for civil cases; the Magistrate Court and the Sessions Court for criminal cases, has jurisdiction over Delhi. The city is administratively divided into nine police-zones, which are subdivided into 95 local police stations. 
Government and politics
The National Capital Territory of Delhi has its own Legislative AssemblyLieutenant Governor, council of ministers andChief Minister. Members of the legislative assembly are directly elected from territorial constituencies in the NCT. The legislative assembly was abolished in1956, after which direct federal control was implemented until it was re-established in 1993. The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) handles civic administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj Act. The Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi jointly administer New Delhi, where both bodies are located. The Parliament of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), Cabinet Secretariat and the Supreme Court of India are located in New Delhi. There are 70 assembly constituencies and seven Lok Sabha (Indian parliament's lower house) constituencies in Delhi. 
The Indian National Congress formed all the governments in Delhi until the 1990s, when the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), led by Madan Lal Khurana, came to power.  Since 1998 however, the Congress has retained power in Delhi, with the current Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit in her 3rd term. The city's transport services are run by the Delhi government and the police are directly controlled by the Central Government. 
Economy As per the Economic survey of Delhi (2005–2006), the tertiary sector contributes 70.95% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors, with 25.20% and 3.85% contributions respectively. Delhi's workforce constitutes 32.82% of the population, and increased by 52.52% between 1991 and 2001.  Delhi's unemployment rate decreased from 12.57% in 1999–2000 to 4.63% in 2003.  In December 2004, 636,000 people were registered with various employment exchange programs in Delhi. 
Delhi is the largest commercial centre in northern India; it has an estimated net State Domestic Product (FY 2010) of INR157,817 crore (US$28.72 billion) in nominal terms and ~INR630,000 crore (US$114.66 billion) in PPP terms.  As of 2010, the per capita income of Delhi was INR135,820 (US$2,471.92), the third highest in India after Chandigarh and Goa. Delhi's Gross domestic product GDP (at 2004-05 prices), on average, grew by 10.7% between 2007 and 2012, making it one of the fastest growing cities in the region. 
In 2001 the total workforce in national and state governments and the quasi-government sector was 620,000, and the private sector employed 219,000. Key service industries are information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism.  Construction, power, health and community services, and real estate are also important to the city's economy. Delhi has one of India's largest and fastest growing retail industries. Manufacturing also grew considerably as consumer goods companies established manufacturing units and headquarters in the city. Delhi's large consumer market and the availability of skilled labour has attracted foreign investment. In 2001, the manufacturing sector employed 1,440,000 workers and the city had 129,000 industrial units. 
Utility services
The city's electricity consumption is about 1,265 kWh per capita, but actual demand is higher.  In 1997, Delhi Vidyut Board (DVB) replaced Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking which was managed by the MCD. The Delhi Fire Service runs 43 fire stations that attend about 15,000 fire and rescue calls per year.  The state-owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) and private enterprisesVodafone EssarAirtelIdea cellularReliance InfocommAircel and Tata Indicom provide telephone and cell phone service to the city. Cellular coverage is available in GSM and CDMA.
Delhi's municipal water supply is managed by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). As of 2005–06, it supplied 650 million gallons per day (MGD), whereas the estimated consumption requirement is 963 MGD. The shortfall is met by private and public tube wells and hand pumps. At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is DJB's largest water source, followed by the Yamuna and Ganges rivers. Delhi'sgroundwater level is falling and its population density is increasing, so residents often encounter acute water shortage. 
In Delhi, daily domestic solid waste production is 8000 tonnes which is dumped at three landfill locations by MCD.  The daily domestic waste water production is 470 MGD and industrial waste water is 70 MGD.  A large portion of the sewage flows untreated into the Yamuna river. 
Indira Gandhi International Airport, situated to the southwest of Delhi, is the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. It is a private airport, maintained by the GMR Group. In 2006–07, the airport was used by more than 23 million passengers,  making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. Terminal 3, which cost INR  96.8 billion (US$1.76 billion) to construct between 2007 and 2010, was expected to handle an additional 37 million passengers annually. 
The Delhi Flying Club, established in 1928 with two de Havilland Moth aircraft named Delhi and Roshanara, was based atSafdarjung Airport which started operations in 1929, when it was the Delhi’s only airport and the second in India. The airport functioned until 2001, however in January 2002 the government closed the airport for flying activities because of security concerns following the New York attacks in September 2001. Since then, the club only carries out aircraft maintenance courses,  and is used for helicopter rides to Indira Gandhi International Airport for VVIP including the president and the prime minister. 
Delhi is a major junction in the Indian railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The five main railway stations are New Delhi railway stationOld DelhiNizamuddin Railway StationAnand Vihar Railway Terminal andSarai Rohilla.  The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation(DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi and the neighbouring cities GurgaonNoida and Ghaziabad. As of August 2011, the metro consists of six operational lines with a total length of 189 km (117 mi) and 146 stations, and several other lines are under construction.  The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional INR  216 billion (US$3.93 billion).  Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was expected to be completed by 2010. In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists. 
As of 2007, private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport.  Delhi has 1922.32 km of road length per 100 km2, one of the highest road densities in India.  It is connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 12810 and 24. The city's road network is maintained by MCD, NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.  The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway connects Delhi with Gurgaon and the international airport. The DND Flyway and Noida-Greater Noida Expressway connect Delhi with the suburbs of Noida and Greater Noida.  Delhi's rapid rate of economic development and population growth has resulted in an increasing demand for transport, creating excessive pressure on the city's transport infrastructure. As of 2008, the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, Delhi NCR, is 112 lakhs (11.2 million).  In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents. 
In order to meet the transport demand, the State and Union government constructed a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro.  In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered that all public transport vehicles in Delhi must be fuelled by compressed natural gas (CNG).  Buses are the most popular means of public transport, catering for about 60% of the total demand.  The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider which operates the world's largest fleet of CNG-fuelled buses. Delhi Bus Rapid Transit System runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.

According to the 2011 census of India, the population of Delhi is 16,753,235.[1] The corresponding population density was 11,297 persons per km2, with a sex ratio of 866 women per 1000 men, and a literacy rate of 86.34%. In 2004, the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate per 1000 population were 20.03, 5.59 and 13.08, respectively.
  In 2001, the population of Delhi increased by 285,000 as a result of migration and by 215,000 as a result of natural population growth  this made Delhi one of the fastest growing cities in the world. By 2015, Delhi is expected to be the third-largest conurbation in the world after Tokyo and Mumbai. Dwarka Sub City, Asia's largest planned residential area, is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi. 
According a 1999–2000 estimate, the total number of people living below the poverty line, defined as living on US$11 or less per month, in Delhi was 1,149,000, or 8.23% of the total population, compared to 27.5% of India as a whole.  52% of Delhi residents live in slums  without basic services like water, electricity, sanitation, sewage system or proper housing.  In 2005, Delhi accounted for the highest percentage (16.2%) of the crimes reported in 35 Indian cities with populations of one million or more.  The city has the highest rate of kidnapping and abduction cases with 9.3%; the national rate is 2.2%.  Delhi accounts for 15.4% of crime against women in Indian cities. 
Hinduism is Delhi's most popular religion, with approximately 82% of Delhi's population. The city has large communities of Muslims (11.7%), Sikhs (4%), Baha'i (0.1%), Jains (1.1%) and Christians (0.94%) in the city.  Other minority religions include Buddhism,Zoroastrianism and Judaism.  The principle language in Delhi is Hindustani,  and Hindi (Devanagari Script) is the principal written language of the city.  There is a sizable Punjabi and Urdu speaking population. Punjabi and Urdu has second language status in Delhi. 
Culture Chandni Chowk, a three-century-old shopping area, is one of the most popular shopping areas in Delhi for jewellery and Zari saris.  Delhi's arts and crafts include, Zardozi   – an embroidery done with gold thread –  and Meenakari  – the art of enamelling. 
Delhi's culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the capital of India. This is exemplified by many significant monuments in the city. The Archaeological Survey of India recognises 1200 heritage buildings  and 175 monuments as national heritage sites.  In the Old City, the Mughals and the Turkic rulers constructed several architecturally-significant buildings, such as the Jama Masjid – India's largest mosque  and theRed Fort. Three World Heritage Sites – the Red Fort, Qutab Minar and Humayun's Tomb – are located in Delhi. Other monuments include the India Gate, the Jantar Mantar – an 18th-century astronomical observatory – and thePurana Qila – a 16th century fortress. The Laxminarayan templeAkshardham temple, the Bahá'í Lotus temple and the ISKCON temple are examples of modern architecture. Raj Ghat and associated memorials houses memorials ofMahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities. New Delhi houses several government buildings and official residences reminiscent of British colonial architecture, including the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the SecretariatRajpath, the Parliament of India and Vijay ChowkSafdarjung's Tomb is an example of the Mughal gardens style. Some regalhavelis (palatial residences) are in the Old City. 

Delhi's association and geographic proximity to the capital, New Delhi, has amplified the importance of national events and holidays like Republic DayIndependence Day (15 August) and Gandhi Jayanti. On Independence Day, the Prime Minister addresses the nation from the Red Fort. Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom.
  The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military strength.Over the centuries, Delhi has become known for its composite culture, and a festival that symbolises this is the Phool Walon Ki Sair, which takes place in September. Flowers andpankhe – fans embroidered with flowers – are offered to the shrine of 13th century Sufi saint Khwaja Bakhtiyar Kakiand the Yogmaya temple, both situated in Mehrauli. 
Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of lights), Mahavir Jayanti,Guru Nanak's BirthdayDurga PujaHoliLohriChauthKrishna JanmastamiMaha ShivratriEid ul-FitrMoharram and Buddha Jayanti. The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as a backdrop.  Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi. The Auto Expo, Asia's largest auto show, is held in Delhi biennially. The World Book Fair, held biannually at the Pragati Maidan, is the second largest exhibition of books in the world.  Delhi is often regarded as the "Book Capital" of India because of high readership. 
The fast living habits of Delhi's people has motivated the growth of street food outlets.  A trend of dining at localdhabas is popular among the residents. High profile restaurants have gained popularity in recent years, among the popular restaurants are the Karim Hotel, the Punjab Grill and Bukhara.  The Gali Paranthe Wali (the street of fried bread) is a street in Chandni Chowk particularly for food eateries since the 1870s, almost the entire street is occupied by fast food stalls or street vendors who regularly. It has become almost a tradition that almost every prime minister of India has visited the street to eat paratha at least once, and other Indian cuisines are available here.
As India's national capital and centuries old Mughal capital, Delhi influenced the food habits of its residents and is where Mughlai cuisine originated. Along with Indian cuisine, a variety of international cuisines are popular among the residents.[138] The dearth of food habits among the city's residents created a unique style of cooking which became popular throughout the world, with dishes such as Kebabbiryanitandoori. The city's classic dishes include Butter chickenAloo Chaatchaatdahi vadakachorijalebi and lassi.